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PWD ACT, 1995 THE PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES (EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES, PROTECTION OF RIGHTS AND FULL PARTICIPATION) ACT, 1995 PUBLISHED IN PART II, SECTION 1 OF THE EXTRAORDINARY GAZETTE OF INDIA                New Delhi, the 1st January, 1996/Pausa 11, 1917 (Saka) The following Act of Parliament received the assent of the President on the 1st January, 1996, and is hereby published for general information:- No.1 OF 1996 [1st January 1996] An Act to give effect to the Proclamation on the Full Participation and Equality of the People with Disabilities in the Asian and Pacific Region. WHEREAS the Meeting to Launch the Asian and Pacific Decade of Disabled Persons 1993-2002 convened by the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and Pacific held at Beijing on 1st to 5th December,1992, adopted the Proclamation on the Full Participation and Equality of People with Disabilities in the Asian and Pacific Region; AND WHEREAS India is a signatory to the said Proclamation; AND WHEREAS it is considered necessary to implement the Proclamation aforesaid. Be it enacted by Parliament in the Forty-sixth Year of the Republic of India as follows:- Chapter I Preliminary Chapter II The Central Coordination Committee Chapter III The State Coordination Committee Chapter IV Prevention And Early Detection Of Disabilities Chapter V Education Chapter VI Employment Chapter VII Affirmative Action Chapter VIII Non - Discrimination Chapter IX Research And Manpower Development Chapter X Recognition Of Institutions For Persons With Disabilities Chapter XI Institution For Persons With Severe Disabilities Chapter XII The Chief Commissioner And Commissioners For Persons With Disabilities Chapter XIII Social Security Chapter XIV Miscellaneous             CHAPTER I : PRELIMINARY 1. (1) This Act may be called the Persons With Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act, 1995. (2) It extends to the whole of India except the State of Jammu and Kashmir. (3) It shall come into force on such date as the Central Government may. by notification, appoint. 2. In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires,- (a) "Appropriate Government" means,- (i) In relation to the Central Government or any establishment wholly or substantially financed by that Government, or a Cantonment Board constituted under the Cantonment Act, 1924, the Central Government ; (ii) In relation to a State Government or any establishment wholly or substantially financed by that Government, or any local authority., other than a Cantonment Board, the State Government; (iii) In respect of the Central Co-ordination Committee and the Central Executive Committee, the Central Government; (iv) In respect of the State Co-ordination Committee and the State Executive Committee, the State Government; (b) "Blindness" refers to a condition where a person suffers from any of the following conditions, namely:- (i) Total absence of sight. or (ii) Visual acuity not exceeding 6160 or 201200 (snellen) in the better eye with correcting lenses; or (iii) Limitation of the field of vision subtending an angle of 20 degree or worse; (c) "Central Co-ordination Committee" means the Central Co-ordination Committee constituted under sub-section (1) of section 3; (d) "Central Executive Committee" means the Central Executive Committee constituted under subsection (1) of section 9; (e) "Cerebral palsy" means a group of non-progressive conditions of a person characterized by abnormal motor control posture resulting from brain insult or injuries occurring in the pre-natal, perinatal or infant period of development; (f) "Chief Commissioner" means the Chief Commissioner appointed under subsection (1) of section 57; (g) "Commissioner" means the Commissioner appointed under sub-section (1) of section 60; (h) "Competent authority" means the authority appointed under section 50; (i) "Disability" means( I) Blindness; (ii) Low vision; (iii) Leprosy-cured; (iv) Hearing impairment; (v) Loco motor disability; (vi) Mental retardation; (vii) Mental illness; (j) "Employer" means,- (i) In relation to a Government, the authority notified by the Head of the Department in this behalf or where no such authority is notified, the Head of the Department; and (ii) In relation to an establishment, the chief executive officer of that the establishment; (k) "Establishment" means a corporation established by or under a Central, Provincial or State Act, or an authority or a body owned or controlled or aided by the Government or a local authority or a Government company as defined in section 617 of 'the Companies Act, 1956 and includes Departments of a Government; (l) "Hearing impairment" means loss of sixty decibels or more in the better year in the conversational range of' frequencies; (m) "Institution for persons with disabilities" means an institution for the reception. Care, protection, education, training, rehabilitation or any other service of persons with disabilities; (n) "Leprosy cured person" means any person who has been cured of leprosy but is suffering from- (i) Loss of sensation in hands or feet as well as loss of sensation and paresis in the eye and eye-lid but with no manifest deformity; (ii) Manifest deformity and paresis; but having sufficient mobility in their hands and feet to enable them to engage in normal economic activity; (iii) Extreme physical deformity as well as advanced age which prevents him from undertaking any gainful occupation, and the expression "leprosy cured" shall be construed accordingly; (o) "Loco motor disability" means disability of the bones, joints muscles leading to substantial restriction of the movement of the limbs or any form of cerebral palsy, (p) "Medical authority" means any hospital or institution specified for the purposes of this Act by notification by the appropriate Government; (q) "Mental illness" means any mental disorder other than mental retardation; (r) "Mental retardation" means a condition of arrested or incomplete development of mind of a person which is specially characterized by sub normality of intelligence; (s) "Notification" means a notification published in the, Official Gazette; (t) "Person with disability" means a person suffering from not less than forty per cent. of any disability as certified by a medical authority; (u) "Person with low vision" means a person with impairment of visual functioning even after treatment or standard refractive correction but who uses or is potentially capable of using vision for the planning or execution of a task with appropriate assistive device; (v) "Prescribed" means prescribed by rules made under this Act; (w) "Rehabilitation" refers to a process aimed at enabling persons with disabilities to reach and maintain their optimal physical, sensory, intellectual, psychiatric or social functional levels; (x) "Special Employment Exchange" means any office or place established and maintained by the Government for the collection and furnishing of information, either by keeping of registers or otherwise, respecting- (i) Persons who seek to engage employees from amongst the persons suffering from disabilities; (ii) Persons with disability who seek employment; (iii) Vacancies to which person with disability seeking employment may be appointed; (y) "State Co-ordination Committee" means the State Co-ordination Committee constituted under subsection (1) of section 19; (z) "State Executive Committee" means the State Executive Committee constituted under sub-section (l) of section 19 CHAPTER II : THE COORDINATION COMMITTEE 3. (1) The Central Government shall by notification constitute a body to be known as the Central Co-ordination Committee to exercise the powers conferred on, and to perform the functions assigned to it, under this Act. (2) The Central Co-ordination Committee shall consist of- (a) The Minister in charge of the Department of Welfare in the Central Government, Chairperson, ex officio; (b) The Minister of State in-charge of the Department of Welfare in the Central Government, Vice- Chairperson, ex officio; (c) Secretaries to the Government of India in-charge of the Departments of Welfare, Education, Woman and Child Development, Expenditure, Personnel, Training and Public Grievances, Health, Rural Development, Industrial Development, Urban Affairs and Employment, Science and Technology. Legal Affairs, Public Enterprises, Members, ex officio; (d) Chief Commissioner, Member, ex officio; (e) Chairman Railway Board, Member, ex officio; (f) Director-General of Lab our, Employment and Training, Member, ex officio; (g) Director, National Council for Educational Research and Training, Member, ex officio; (h) Three Members of Parliament. of whom two shall be elected by the House of the People and one by the Council of States, Members; (I) Three persons to be nominated by the Central Government to represent the interests, which in the opinion of that Government ought to be represented, Members; (j) Directors of the- (I) National Institute for the Visually Handicapped, Dehradun; (ii) National Institute for the Mentally Handicapped, Secundrabad; (iii) National Institute for the Orthopaedically Handicapped, Calcutta; (iv) Ali Yavar Jung National Institute for the Hearing Handicapped, Bombay, Members, ex officio; (k) Four Members to be nominated by the Central Government by rotation to represent the States and the Union territories in such manner as may be prescribed by the Central Government: Provided that no appointment under this clause shall be made except on the recommendation of the State Government or, as the case may be, the Union territory; (l) Five persons as far as practicable, being persons with disabilities. to represent non-governmental Organizations or associations which are concerned with disabilities, to he nominated by the Central Government, one from each area of disability, Members: Provided that while nominating persons under this clause, the Central Government shall nominate at least one woman and one person belonging to Scheduled Castes or Scheduled Tribes; (m) Joint Secretary to the Government of India in the Ministry of Welfare dealing with the welfare of the handicapped, Member-Secretary, ex officio. (3) The office of the Member of the Central Co-ordination Committee shall not disqualify its holder for being chosen as or for being a Member of either House of Parliament. 4. (1) Save as otherwise provided by or under this Act a Member of Central Co-ordination Committee nominated under clause (i) or clause (l) of sub-section (2) of section 3 shall hold office for a term of three years from the date of his nomination: Provided that such a Member shall, notwithstanding the expiration of his term, continue to hold office until his successor enters upon his office. (2) The term of office of an ex officio Member shall come to an end as soon as he ceases to hold the office by virtue of which he was so nominated. (3) The Central Government may if it thinks fit remove any Member nominated under clause (i) or clause (1) of subsection (2) of section 3, before the expiry of his term of office after giving him a reasonable opportunity of showing cause against the same. (4) A Member nominated under clause (i) or clause (1) of subsection (2) of section 3 may at any time resign his office by writing under his hand addressed to the Central Government and the seat of the said Member shall thereupon become vacant. (5) A casual vacancy in the Central Co-ordination Committee shall be filled by a fresh nomination and the person nominated to fill the vacancy shall hold office only for the remainder of the term for which the Member in whose place he was so Dominated. (6) A Member nominated under clause (i) or clause (l) of subsection (2) of section 3 shall be eligible for (7) Members nominated under clause (i) and clause (1) of sub-section (2) of section 3 shall receive such allowances as may, be prescribed by the Central Government. 5. (1) No person shall be a Member of the Central Coordination Committee, who- (a) Is, or at any time has been, adjudged insolvent or has suspended payment of his debts or has compounded with his creditors, or (b) Is of unsound mind and stands so declared by a competent court, or (c) Is or has been convicted of an offence which, in the opinion of the Central Government, involves moral turpitude, or (d) Is or at any time has been convicted of an offence under this Act. or (e) Has so abused in the opinion of the Central Government his position as a Member as to render his continuance in the Central Coordination Committee detrimental to the interests of the general public. (2) No order of removal shall be made by the Central Government under this section unless the Member concerned has been given a reasonable opportunity of showing cause against the same. (3) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1) or sub-section (6) of section 4, a Member who has been removed under this section shall not be eligible for renomination as a Member. 6. If a Member of the Central Coordination Committee becomes subject to any of the disqualifications specified in section 5, his scat shall become vacant. 7. Lie Central Coordination Committee shall meet at least once in every six months and shall observe such rules of procedure in regard to the transaction of business at its meetings as may be prescribed by the Central Government. 8. (1) Subject to the provisions of this Act, the function of the Central Coordination Committee shall be to serve as the national focal point on disability matters and facilitate the continuous evolution of a comprehensive policy towards solving the problems faced by persons with disabilities. (2) In particular and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing, the Central Coordination Committee may perform all or any, of the following functions, namely:- (a) Review and coordinate the activities of all the Departments of Government and other Governmental and non-Govemmental Organizations which are dealing with matters relating to persons with disabilities; (b) Develop a national policy to address issues faced by, persons with disabilities; (c) Advise the Central Government on the formulation oil policies, programmes, legislation and projects with respect to disability, (d) Take up the cause of persons with disabilities with the concerned authorities and the international organizations with a view, to provide for schemes and projects for the disabled in the national plans and other programmes and policies evolved by the international agencies; (e) Review in consultation with the donor agencies their funding policies from the perspective of their impact on persons with disabilities; (f) Take such other steps to ensure barrier free environment in public places, work places, public utilities, schools and other institutions; (g) Monitor and evaluate the impact of policies and programmes designed for achieving equality and full participation of persons with disabilities; (h) To perform such other functions as may be prescribed by the Central Government. 9. (1) The Central Government shall constitute a Committee to be known as the Central Executive Committee to perform the functions assigned to it under this Act. (2) The Central Executive Committee shall consist of- (a) The Secretary to the Government of India in the Ministry of Welfare, Chairperson, ex officio; (b) The Chief Commissioner, Member, ex officio; (c) The Director-General for Health Services, Member, ex officio; (d) The Director-General, Employment and Training, Member, ex officio; (e) Six persons not below the rank of a Joint Secretary to the Government of India, to represent the Ministries or Departments of Rural Development, Education. Welfare, Personnel Public Grievances and Pension and Urban Affairs and Employment, Science and Technology, Members, ex officio; (f) The Financial Advisor, Ministry of Welfare in the Central Government, Member, ex officio; (g) Advisor (Tariff) Railway Board, Member, ex officio; (h) Four members to be nominated by the Central Government, by rotation, to represent the State Governments and the Union territories in such manner as may be prescribed by the Central Government; (i) One person to be nominated by the Central Government to represent the interest, which in the opinion of the Central Government ought to be represented, Member; (j) Five persons, as far as practicable, being persons with disabilities, to represent non-governmental organizations or associations which are concerned with disabilities, to he nominated by the Central Government, one from each area of disability, Members: Provided that while nominating persons under this clause, the Central Government shall nominate at least one woman and one person belonging to Scheduled Castes or Scheduled Tribes; (k) Joint Secretary to the Government of India in the Ministry of Welfare dealing with the welfare of the handicapped, Member-Secretary, ex officio. (3) Members nominated under clause (i) and clause (j) of sub-section (2) shall receive such allowances as may be prescribed by the Central Government. (4) A Member nominated under clause (i) or clause (i) of sub-section (2) may at any time resign his office by writing under his hand addressed to the Central Government and the scat of the said Member shall thereupon become vacant. 10. (1) The Central Executive Committee shall be the executive body of the Central Coordination Committee and shall be responsible for carrying out the decisions of the Central Coordination Committee. (2) Without prejudice to the provisions of sub-section (1), the Central Executive Committee shall also perform such other functions as may be delegated to it by the Central Coordination Committee. 11. The Central Executive Committee shall meet at least once in three months and shall observe such rules of procedure in regard to the transaction of business at its meetings as may be prescribed by the Central Government. 12. (1) The Central Executive Committee may associate with itself in such manner and for such purposes as may be prescribed by the Central Government any person whose assistance or advice it may desire to obtain in performing any of its functions under this Act. (2) A person associated with the Central Executive Committee under sub-section (1) for any purpose shall have the right to take part in the discussions of the Central Executive Committee relevant to that purpose, but shall not have a right to vote at a meeting of the said Committee, and shall not be a member for any other purpose. (3) A person associated with the said Committee under sub-section (1) for any purpose shall be paid such fees and allowances, for attending its meetings and for attending to any other work of the said Committee, as may be prescribed by the Central Government. CHAPTER III : THE STATE COORDINATION COMMITTEE 13. (1) Every State Government shall, by notification, constitute a body to be known as the State Coordination Committee to exercise the powers conferred on, and to perform the function assigned to it, under this Act. (2) the State Coordination Committee shall consist of- (a) The Minister in-charge of the Department of Social Welfare in the State Government, Chairperson, ex officio; (b) the Minister of State in-charge of the Department of Social Welfare, if any, Vice-Chairperson, ex officio; (c) Secretaries to the State Government in-charge of the Departments of Welfare, Education, Woman and Child Development, Expenditure, Personnel Training and Public Grievances, Health, Rural Development, Industrial Development, Urban Affairs and Employment, Science and Technology, Public Enterprises, by whatever name called, Members, ex officio; (d) Secretary of any other Department, which the State Government considers necessary, Member, ex officio; (e) Chairman Bureau of Public Enterprises (by whatever name called) Member, ex officio; (f) Five persons, as far as practicable, being persons with disabilities, to represent non-governmental organizations or associations which are concerned with disabilities, to be nominated by the State Government, one from each area of disability, Members: Provided that while nominating persons under this clause, the State Government shall nominate at least one woman and one person belonging to Scheduled Castes or Scheduled Tribes; (g) Three Members of State Legislature, of whom two shall be elected by the Legislative Assembly and one by the Legislative Council, if any; (h) Three persons to be nominated by that State Government to represent agriculture, industry or trade or any other interest, which in the opinion of State Government ought to be represented, Members, ex officio; (i) The Commissioner, Member, ex officio; (j) Secretary to the State Government dealing with the welfare of the handicapped, Member-Secretary, ex officio. (3) Notwithstanding anything contained in this section, no State Coordination Committee shall be constituted for a Union territory and in relation to a Union territory; the Central Coordination Committee shall exercise the functions and perform the functions of a State Coordination Committee for the Union territory: Provided that in relation to a Union territory. The Central Coordination Committee may delegate all or any of its powers and functions under this sub-section to such person or body of persons as the Central Government may specify. 14. (1) Save as otherwise provided by or under this Act, a Member of a State Coordination Committee nominated under clause (f) or clause (h) of subsection (2) of section 13 shall hold office for a term of three years from the date of his nomination: Provided that such a Member shall, notwithstanding the expiration of his term, continue to hold office until his successor enters upon his office. (2) The term of office of an ex officio Member shall come to an end as soon as he ceases to hold the office by virtue of which he was so nominated. (3) The State Government may, if it thinks fit, remove any7 Member nominated under clause (f) or clause (h) of sub-section (2) of section 13, before the expiry of his term of office after giving him a reasonable opportunity of showing cause against the same. (4) A Member nominated under clause (f) or clause (h) of sub-section (2) of section 13 may. At any time, resign his office by writing under his hand addressed to the State Government and the seat of the said Member shall thereupon become vacant. (5) A casual vacancy in the State Coordination Committee shall be filled by a fresh nomination and the person nominated to fill the vacancy shall hold office only for the remainder of the term for which the Member in whose place he was so nominated. (6) A Member nominated under clause (f) and clause (h) of sub-section (2) of section 13 shall be eligible for renomination. (7) Members nominated under clause (f) and clause (h) of sub-section (2) of section13 shall receive such allowances as may he prescribed by the State Government. 15. (1) No pet-son shall he a Member of the State Coordination Committee, who-- (a) Is, or at any time, has been adjudged insolvent or has suspended payment of his debts or has compounded with his creditors, or (b) Is of unsound mind and stands so declared by a competent court, or (c) Is or has been convicted of an offence which in the opinion of the State Government involves moral turpitude, or (d) Is or at any time has been convicted of an offence under this Act or (e) Has so abused, in the opinion of the State Government, his position as a member as to render his continuance in the State Coordination Committee detrimental to the interests of the general public. (2) No order of removal shall be made by the State Government under this section unless the Member concerned has been given a reasonable opportunity of showing cause against the same. (3) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1) or sub-section (6) of section 14, a Member who has been removed under this section shall net be eligible for renomination as a Member. 16. If a Member of the State Coordination Committee becomes subject to any of the disqualifications specified in section 15, his seat shall become vacant. 17. The State Coordination Committee shall meet at least once in every six months and shall observe such rules of procedure in regard to the transaction of business at its meetings as may be prescribed. 18. (1) Subject to the provisions of this Act, the function of the State Coordination Committee shall be to serve as the state focal point on disability matters and facilitate the continuous evolution of a comprehensive policy towards solving the problems faced by persons with disabilities. (2) In particular and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing function the State Coordination Committee may, within the State perform all or any of the following functions, namely.- (a) Review and coordinate the activities of all the Departments of Government and other Governmental and non-Govemmental Organizations which are dealing with matters relating to persons with disabilities., (b) Develop a State policy to address issues faced by persons with disabilities; (c) Advise the State Government on the formulation of policies. Programmes, legislation and projects with respect to disability; (d) Review, in consultation with the donor agencies, their funding from the perspective of their impact on persons with disabilities; (e) Take such other steps to ensure barrier free environment in pupil’s places. Work places, public utilities, schools and other institutions; (f) Monitor and evaluate the impact of policies and programmes designed for achieving equality and full participation of persons with disabilities; (g) To perform such other functions as may be prescribed by the State Government 19. (1) The State Government shall constitute a committee to be known as the State Executive Committee to perform the functions assigned to it under this Act. (2) The State Executive Committee shall consist of- (a) The Secretary, Department of Social Welfare, Chairperson, ex officio; (b) The Commissioner, Member, ex officio; (c) Nine persons not below the rank of a Joint Secretary to the State Government, to represent the Departments of Health, Finance, Rural Development, Education, Welfare, Personnel Public Grievances, Urban Affairs Labor and Employment, Science and Technology, Members, ex officio; (d) One person to be nominated by the State Government to represent the interest, which in the opinion of the State Government ought to be represented. Member; (e) Five persons, as far as practicable being persons with disabilities. to represent non-governmental organizations or associations which arc concerned with disabilities, to be nominated by the State Government, one from each area of disability, Members: Provided that while nominating persons under this clause, the State Government shall nominate at least one woman and one person belonging to Scheduled Castes or Scheduled Tribes; (f) Joint Secretary dealing with the disability division in the Department of Welfare, Member- Secretary, ex officio. (3) Members nominated under clause (d) and clause (e) of sub-section (2) shall receive such allowances as may be prescribed by the State Government. (4) A Member nominated under clause (d) or clause (e) may at any time resign his office by writing under his hand addressed to the State Government and the scat of the said Member shall thereupon become vacant. 20. (1) The State Executive Committee shall be the executive body of the State Coordination Committee and shall be responsible for carrying out the decisions of the State Coordination Committee. (2) Without prejudice to the provisions of sub-section (1), the State Executive Committee shall also perform such other functions as may be delegated to it by the State Coordination Committee. 21. The State Executive Committee shall meet at least once in three months and shall observe such rules of procedure in regard to the transaction of business at its meetings as may be prescribed by, the State Government. 22. (1) The State Executive Committee may associate with itself in such manner and for such purposes as may he prescribed by the State Government any person whose assistance or advice it may desire to obtain in performing any of its functions under this Act. (2) A person associated with the State Executive Committee under sub-section (1) for any purpose shall have the right to take part in the discussions of the State Executive Committee relevant to that purpose, but shall not have a right to vote at a meeting of the said Committee, and shall not he a member for any other purpose. (3) A person associated wills the said Committee under sub-section (1) for any purpose shall be paid such fees and allowances, for attending its meetings and for attending to any other work of the said Committee, as may be prescribed by the State Government. 23. In the performance of its functions under this Act,- (a) The Central Coordination Committee shall be bound by such directions in writing, as the Central Government may give to it; and (b) The State Coordination Committee shall be bound by such directions in writing, as the Central Coordination Committee or the State, Government may give to it: Provided that where a direction given by the State Government is inconsistent with any direction given by the Central Coordination Committee, the matter shall be referred to the Central Government for its decision. 24. No act or proceeding of the Central Coordination Committee, the Central Executive Committee, a State Coordination Committee or a State Executive Committee shall be called in question on the ground merely on the existence of any vacancy in or any defect in the constitution of such Committees. CHAPTER IV : PREVENTATION AND EARLY DETECTION OF DISABILITIES 25. Within the limits of their economic capacity and development, the appropriate Governments and the local authorities, with a view to preventing the occurrence of disabilities, shall- (a) Undertake or cause to be undertaken surveys, investigations and research concerning the cause of occurrence of disabilities; (b) Promote various methods of preventing disabilities; (c) Screen all the children at least once in a year for the purpose of identifying "at-risk" cases; (d) Provide facilities for training to the staff at the primary health centers; (e) Sponsor or cause to be sponsored awareness campaigns and is disseminated or cause to be disseminated information for general hygiene. Health and sanitation, (f) Take measures for pre-natal, parental and post-natal care of mother and child; (g) Educate the public through the pre-schools, schools, primary health Centers, village level workers and anganwadi workers; (h) Create awareness amongst the masses through television, radio and other mass media on the causes of disabilities and the preventive measures to be adopted; CHAPTER V : EDUCATION 26. The appropriate Governments and the local authorities shall- (a) Ensure that every child with a disability has access to free education in an appropriate environment till he attains the age of eighteen years; (b) Endeavor to promote the integration of students with disabilities in the normal schools; (c) Promote setting up of special schools in Government and private sector for those in need of special education, in such a manner that children with disabilities living in any part of the country have access to such schools; (d) Endeavor to equip the special schools for children with disabilities with vocational training facilities. 27. The appropriate Governments and the local authorities shall by notification make schemes for- (a) Conducting part-time classes in respect of children with disabilities who having completed education up to class fifth and could not continue their studies on a whole-time basis; (b) Conducting special part-time classes for providing functional literacy for children in the age group of sixteen and above; (c) Imparting non-formal education by utilizing the available manpower in rural areas after giving them appropriate orientation; (d) Imparting education through open schools or open universities; (e) Conducting class and discussions through interactive electronic or other media; (f) Providing every child with disability free of cost special books and equipments needed for his education. 28. The appropriate Governments shall initiate or cause to be initiated research by official and nongovernmental agencies for the purpose of designing and developing new assistive devices, teaching aids, special teaching materials or such other items as are necessary to give a child with disability equal opportunities in education. 29. The appropriate Governments shall set up adequate number of teachers' training institutions and assist the national institutes and other voluntary organizations to develop teachers' training programmes specializing in disabilities so that requisite trained manpower is available for special schools and integrated schools for children with disabilities. 30. Without prejudice to the foregoing provisions, (be appropriate Governments shall by notification prepare a comprehensive education scheme which shall make Provision for- (a) Transport facilities to the children with disabilities or in the alternative financial incentives to parents or guardians to enable their children with disabilities to attend schools. (b) The removal of architectural barriers from schools. colleges or other institution, imparting vocational and professional training; (c) The supply of books, uniforms and other materials to children with disabilities attending school. (d) The grant of scholarship to students with disabilities.. (e) Setting up of appropriate fora for the redressal of grievances of parent, regarding the placement of their children with disabilities; (f) Suitable modification in the examination system to eliminate purely mathematical questions for the benefit of blind students and students with low vision; (g) Restructuring of curriculum for the benefit of children with disabilities; (h) restructuring the curriculum for benefit of students with hearing impairment to facilitate them to take only one language as part of their curriculum. 31. All educational institutions shall provide or cause to be provided amanuensis to blind students and students with or low vision. CHAPTER VI : EMPLOYMENT 32. Appropriate Governments shall-- (a) Identify posts, in the establishments, which can be reserved for the persons with disability; (b) At periodical intervals not exceeding three years, review the list of posts identified and up-date the list taking into consideration the developments in technology. 33. Every appropriate Government shall appoint in every establishment such percentage of vacancies not less than three per cent. for persons or class of persons with disability of which one per cent. each shall be reserved for persons suffering from- (i) Blindness or low vision; (ii) Bearing impairment; (iii) Loco motor disability or cerebral palsy, in the posts identified for each disability: Provided that the appropriate Government may, having regard to the type of work carried on in any department or establishment, by notification subject to such conditions, if any, as may be specified in such notification, exempt any establishment from the provisions of this section. 34. (1) The appropriate Government may, by notification. Require that from such date as May he specified. By notification. The employer in every establishment shall furnish such information or return as may be prescribed in relation to vacancies appointed for person, with disability that have occurred or are about to occur in that establishment to such Special Employment Exchange as may be prescribed and the establishment shall thereupon comply with such requisition. (2) The form in which and the intervals of time for which information or returns shall be furnished and the particulars, they shall contain shall be such as may be prescribed. 35. Any person authorized by the Special Employment Exchange in writing, shall have access to any relevant record or document in the possession of any establishment, and may enter at any reasonable time and premises where he believes such record or document to be, and inspect or take copies of relevant records or documents or ask any question necessary for obtaining any information. 36. Where in any recruitment year any vacancy under section 33, cannot be filled up due to nonavailability of a suitable person with disability or, for any other sufficient reason, such vacancy shall be carried forward in the succeeding recruitment year and if ;r the succeeding recruitment year also suitable person with disability is not available, it may first be filled by interchange among the three categories and only when there is no parson with disability available for the post in that Year, the employer shall fill up the vacancy by appointment of a person, other than a person with disability: Provided that if the nature of vacancies in an establishment is such that a given category of person can not be employed, the vacancies may be interchanged among the three categories with the prior approval of the appropriate Government. 37. (1) Every employer shall maintain such record in relation to the person. With disability employed in his establishment in such form and in such manner as may be prescribed by the appropriate Government. (2) The records maintained under sub-section (1) shall be open to inspection at all reasonable hours by such persons as may be authorized in this behalf by general or special order by the appropriate Government. 38. (1) The appropriate Governments and local authorities shall by notification formulate schemes for ensuring employment of persons with disabilities, and such schemes may provide for- (a) The training and welfare of persons with disabilities; (b) The relaxation of upper age limit; (c) Regulating the employment; (d) Health and safety measures and creation of a non-handicapping environment in places where persons with disabilities are employed; (e) The manner in which and the person by whom the cost of operating the schemes is to be defrayed; and (f) Constituting the authority responsible for the administration of the scheme. 39. All Government educational institutions and other educational institutions receiving aid from the Government, shall reserve not less than three per cent seat for persons with disabilities. 40. The appropriate Governments and local authorities shall reserve not less than three per cent. in all poverty alleviation schemes for the benefit of persons with disabilities. 41. The appropriate Governments and the local authorities shall, within the limits of their economic capacity and development, provide incentives to employers both in public and private sectors to ensure that at least five per cent. of their work force is composed of persons with disabilities. CHAPTER VII : AFFIRMATIVE ACTION 42. The appropriate Governments shall by notification make schemes to provide aids and appliances to persons with disabilities. 43. The appropriate Governments and local authorities shall by notification frame schemes in favor of persons with disabilities, for the preferential allotment of land at concession] rates for- (a) House; (b) Setting up business; (c) Setting up of special recreation centers; (d) Establishment of special schools; (e) Establishment of research centers; (f) Establishment of factories by entrepreneurs with disabilities CHAPTER VIII : NON-DISCRIMINATION 44. Establishments in the transport sector shall, within the limits of their economic capacity and development for the benefit of persons with disabilities, take special measures to- (a) Adapt rail compartments, buses. Vessels and aircrafts in such a way as to permit easy access to such persons; (b) Adapt toilets in rail compartments, vessels, aircrafts and waiting rooms in such a way as to permit the wheel chair users to use them conveniently. 45. The appropriate Governments and the local authorities shall, within the limits of their economic capacity and development. Provide for- (a) Installation of auditory signals at red lights in the public roads for the benefit of persons with visually handicap; (b) Causing curb cuts and slopes to be made in pavements for the easy access of wheel chair users; (c) Engraving on the surface of the zebra crossing for the blind or for persons with low vision; (d) Engraving on the edges of railway platforms for the blind or for persons with low vision; (e) Devising appropriate symbols of disability; (f) Warning signals at appropriate places. 46. The appropriate Governments and the local authorities shall, within the limits of their economic capacity and development, provide for- (a) Ramps in public buildings; (b) Braille symbols and auditory signals in elevators or lifts; (c) Braille symbols and auditory signals in elevators or lifts; (d) Ramps in hospitals, primary health centers and other medical care and rehabilitation institutions. 47. (1) No establishment shall dispense with or reduce in rank, an employee who acquires a disability during his service. Provided that, if an employee, after acquiring disability is not suitable for the post he was holding, could be shifted to some other post with the same pay scale and service benefits. Provided further that if it is not possible to adjust the employee against any post, he may be kept on a supernumerary post until a suitable post is available or he attains the age of superannuation, whichever is earlier. (2) No promotion shall be denied to a person merely on the ground of his disability: Provided that the appropriate Government may, having regard to the type of work carried on in any establishment, by notification and subject to such conditions, if any, as may be specified in such notification, exempt any establishment from the provisions of this section. CHAPTER IX : RESEARCH AND MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT 48. The appropriate Governments and local authorities shall promote and sponsor research, inter alia,, in the following areas- (a) Prevention of disability; (b) Rehabilitation including community based rehabilitation; (c) Development of assistive devices including their psychosocial aspects; (d) Job identification; (e) On site modifications in offices and factories. 49. The appropriate Governments shall provide financial assistance to universities, other institutions of higher learning, professional bodies and non-governmental research-. units or institutions, for undertaking research for special education. rehabilitation and manpower development. CHAPTER X : RECOGNITION OF INSTITUTIONS FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES 50. The State Government shall appoint any authority, as it deems fit to be a competent authority for the purposes of this Act. 51. Save as otherwise provided under this Act, no person shall establish or maintain any institution for persons with disabilities except under and in accordance with a certificate of registration issued in this behalf by the competent authority: Provided that a person maintaining an institution for persons with disabilities immediately before the commencement of this Act may continue to maintain such institution for a period of six months from such commencement and if he has made an application for such certificate under this section within the said period of six months, till the disposal of such application. 52. (1) Every application for a certificate of registration shall be made to the competent authority in such form and in such manner as may be prescribed by the State Government. (2) On receipt of an application under sub-section (1), the competent authority shall make such enquiries as it may deem fit and where it is satisfied that the applicant has cornplied with the requirements of this Act and the rules made thereunder it shall grant a certificate of registration to the applicant and where it is not so satisfied the competent authority shall. by order. refuse to grant the certificate applied for: Provided that before making any order refusing to grant a certificate the competent authority shall give to the applicant a reasonable opportunity of being heard and every order of refusal to grant a certificate shall he communicated to the applicant in such manner as may be prescribed by the State Government. (3) No certificate of registration shall be granted under sub-section (2) unless the institution with respect to which an application has been made is in a position to provide such facilities and maintain such standards as may be prescribed by the State Government. (4) A certificate of registration granted under this section,- (a) Shall, unless revoked under section 53, remain in force for such period as may, be prescribed by, the State Government. (b) May be renewed from time to time for a like period; and (c) Shall be in such form and shall be subject to such conditions as may be Prescribed by the State Government (5) An application for renewal of a certificate of registration shall be made not less than sixty days before the period of validity. (6) The certificate of registration shall he displayed by the institution in a conspicuous place. 53. (1) the competent authority may, if it has reasonable cause to believe that the Holder of the certificate of registration granted under sub-section (2) of section 52 has - (a) Made a statement in relation to any application for the issue of renewal of the certificate which is incorrect or false in material particulars; or (b) Committed or has caused to be committed any breach of rules or any conditions subject to which the certificate was granted, it may after making such inquiry, as it deems fit, by order, revoke the certificate: Provided that no such order shall he made until an opportunity is given to the holder of the certificate to show cause as to why the certificate should not be revoked. (2) Where a certificate in respect of an institution has been revoked under sub-section (1), such institution shall cease to function from the date of such revocation. Provided that where an appeal lies under section 54 against the order of revocation, such institution shall cease to function— (a) Where no appeal has been preferred immediately on the expiry of the period prescribed for the filing of such appeal, or (b) Where such appeal has been preferred, but the order of revocation has been upheld, from the date of the order of appeal. (3) On the revocation of a certificate in respect of an institution, the competent authority may direct that any person with disability who is an inmate of such institution on the date of such revocation, shall be- (a) Restored to the custody of her or his parent, spouse or lawful guardian, as the case may be, or (b) Transferred to any other institution specified by the competent authority. (4) Every institution, which holds a certificate of registration, which is revoked, under this section shall, immediately after such revocation. Surrender such certificate to the Competent authority. 54. (1) Any person aggrieved by the order of the competent authority, refusing to grant a certificate or revoking a certificate may, within such period as may he prescribed by the State Government, prefer an appeal to that Government against such refusal or revocation. (2) The order of the State Government on such appeal shall he final. 55. Nothing contained in this Chapter shall apply, to an institution for persons with disabilities established or maintained by the Central Government or State Government. CHAPTER XI : INSTITUTION FOR PERSONS WITH SEVERE DISABILITIES 56. The appropriate Government may establish and maintain institutions for persons with severe disabilities at such places as it thinks fit. (2) Where, the appropriate Government is of opinion that any institution other than an institution. Established under sub-section (1), is fit for the rehabilitation of the persons with severe disabilities, the Government may recognize such institution as an institution for persons with severe disabilities for the purposes of this Act: Provided that no institution shall be recognized under this section unless such institution has complied with the requirements of this Act and the rules made there under. (3) Every institution established under sub-section (1) shall be maintained in such manner and satisfy such conditions as may be prescribed b), the appropriate Government. (4) For the purposes of this section "person with severe disability" means a person with eighty per cent. or more of one or more disabilities. CHAPTER XII : THE CHIEF COMMISSIONER AND COMMISSIONERS FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES 57. (1) The Central Government may, by notification appoint a Chief Commissioner for persons with disabilities for the purposes of this Act. (2) A person shall not be qualified for appointment as the Chief Commissioner unless he has special knowledge or practical experience in respect of matters relating to rehabilitation. (3) The salary and allowances payable to and other terms and conditions of service (including pension, gratuity and other retirement benefits of the Chief Commissioner shall be such as may be prescribed by the Central Government. (4) The Central Government shall determine the nature and categories of officers and other employees required to assist the Chief Commissioner in the discharge of his functions and provide the Chief Commissioner with such officers and other employees as it thinks fit. (5) The officers and employees provided to the Chief Commissioner shall discharge their functions under the general superintendence of the Chief Commissioner. (6) The salaries and allowances and other conditions of service of officers and employees provided to the Chief Commissioner shall be such as may be prescribed by the Central Government. 58. The Chief commissioner shall --- (a) Coordinate the work of the Commissioners; (b) Monitor the utilization of' funds disbursed by the Central Government; (c) Take steps to safeguard the rights and facilities made available to Persons with disabilities; (d) Submit reports to the Central Government on the implementation of the Act at such intervals as that Government may prescribe. 59. Without prejudice to the provisions of section 58 the Chief Commissioner may of his own motion or on the application of any aggrieved person or otherwise look into complaints with respect to matters relating to -- (a) Deprivation of rights of persons with Disabilities. (b) Non-implementation of laws, rules, byelaws, regulations. Executive orders, guidelines or instructions made or issued by the appropriate Governments and the local authorities for the welfare and protection of rights or persons with disabilities. And take up the matter with the appropriate authorities. 60. (1) Every State Government may, by notification appoint a Commissioner for persons with disabilities for the purpose of this Act. (2) A person shall not be qualified for appointment as a Commissioner unless he has special knowledge or practical experience in respect of matters relating to rehabilitation. (3) The salary and allowances payable to and other terms and conditions of service (including pension gratuity and other retirement benefits) of the Commissioner shall be such as may he prescribed by the State Government. (4) The State Government shall determine the nature and categories of officers and other employees required to assist the Commissioner in the discharge of his functions and provide the Commissioner with such officers and other employees as it thinks fit. (5) The officers and employees provided to the Commissioner shall discharge their functions under the general superintendence of the Commissioner. (6) The salaries and allowances and other conditions of service of officers and employees provided to the Commissioner shall be such as may he prescribed by the State Government. 61. The Commissioner within the State shall- (a) Coordinate with the departments of the State Government for the programmes and schemes, for the benefit of persons with disabilities; (b) Monitor the utilization of funds disbursed by the State Government; (c) Take steps to safeguard the rights and facilities made available to persons with disabilities. (d) Submit reports to the State Government on the implementation of the Act at such intervals as that Government may prescribe and forward a copy thereof to the Chief Commissioner. 62. Without prejudice to the provisions of section 61 the Commissioner may of his own motion or on the application of any aggrieved person or otherwise look into complaints with respect to matters relating to--- (a) Deprivation of rights of persons with disabilities; (b) Non-implementation of laws, rules, bye-laws, regulations, executive orders, guidelines or instructions made or issued by the appropriate Governments and the local authorities for the welfare and protection of rights of persons with disabilities, And take up the matter with the appropriate authorities. 63. The Chief Commissioner and the Commissioners shall, for the purpose of discharging their functions under this Act, have the same powers as are vested in a court under the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 while trying a suit, in respect of the following matters, namely:- (a) Summoning and enforcing the attendance of witnesses; (b) Requiring the discovery and production of any documents; (c) Requisitioning any public record or copy thereof from any court or office; (d) Receiving evidence on affidavits; and (e) Issuing commissions for the examination of witnesses or documents. (2) Every proceeding before the Chief Commissioner and Commissioners shall be a judicial proceeding within the meaning directions 193 and 228 of the Indian Penal Code and the Chief Commissioner, the Commissioner, the competent authority, shall be deemed to he a civil court for the purposes of section 195 and Chapter XXVI of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973. 64. (1) The Chief Commissioner shall prepare in such form and at such time for each financial year as may be prescribed by the Central Government an annual report giving a full account of his activities during the previous financial year and forward a copy thereof to the Central Government. (2) The Central Government shall cause the annual report to be laid before each House of Parliament along with the recommendations explaining the action taken or proposed to be taken on the recommendation made therein in so far as they relate to the Central Government and the reasons for non-acceptance, if any, of any such recommendation or part. 65. (1) The Commissioner shall prepare in such form and at such time for each financial year as may be prescribed by the State Government an annual report giving a full account of his activities during the previous financial year and forward a copy thereof to the State Government. The State Government shall cause the annual report to be laid before each State Legislature along with the recommendations explaining the action taken or proposed to be taken on the recommendation made therein in so far as they relate to the State Government and the reasons for non-acceptance, if any, of any such recommendation or part. CHAPTER XIII : SOCIAL SECURITY 66. (1) The appropriate Governments and the local authorities shall within the limits of their economic capacity and development undertake or cause to be undertaken rehabilitation of all persons with disabilities. (2) For purposes of sub-section (1), the appropriate Governments and local authorities shall grant financial assistance to non-governmental organizations. (3) The appropriate Governments and local authorities while formulating rehabilitation policies shall consult the non-governmental organizations working for the cause of persons with disabilities. 67. (1) The appropriate Government shall by notification frame an insurance scheme for the benefit of its employees with disabilities. (2) Notwithstanding anything contained in this section, the appropriate Government may instead of framing an insurance scheme frame an alternative security scheme for its employees with disabilities. 68. The appropriate Governments shall within the limits of their economic capacity and development shall by notification frame a scheme for payment of an unemployment allowance to persons with disabilities registered with the Special Employment Exchange for more than two years and who could not he placed in any gainful occupation. CHAPTER XIV : MISCELLANEOUS 69. Whoever fraudulently avails or attempts to avail, any benefit meant for persons with disabilities, shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to two years or with fine which may extend to twenty thousand rupees or with both. 70. The Chief Commissioner, the Commissioners and other officers and staff provided to them shall be deemed to be public servants within the meaning of section 21 of the Indian Penal Code. 71. No suit, prosecution or other legal proceeding shall lie against the Central Government, the State Governments or the local authority or any officer of the Government in respect of anything which is done in good faith or intended to be done in pursuance of this Act and any rules or orders made there under. 72. The provisions of this Act, or the rules made there under shall be in addition to, and not in derogation of any other law for the time being in force or any rules, order or any instructions issued there under, enacted or issued for the benefit of persons with disabilities. 73. (1) The appropriate Government may, by notification, make rules for carrying out the provisions of this Act. (2) In particular, and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing powers, such rules may provide for all or any of the following matters, namely:- (a) The manner in which a State Government or a Union territory shall be chosen under clause (k) of sub-section (2) of section 3; (b) Allowances, which members shall receive under subsection (7) of section 4; (c) Rules of procedure, which the Central Coordination Committee shall observe in regard to the transaction of business in its meetings under section 7; (d) Such other functions, which the Central Coordination Committee may perform under clause (h) of sub-section (2) of section 8; (e) The manner in which a State Government or a Union Territory shall be chosen under clause (h) of sub-section (2) of section 9; (f) The allowances, which the Members shall receive under sub-section (3) of section 9; (g) Rules of procedure, which the Central Executive Committee shall observe in regard to transaction of business at its meetings under section 11; (h) The manner and purposes for which a person may be associated under sub-section (I) of section 12; (i) Fees and allowances which a person associated with the Central Executive Committee shall received under sub-section (3) of section 12; (j) Allowances which members shall received under sub-section (7) of section 14; (k) Rules of procedure, which a State Coordination Committee shall observe in regard to transaction of business in its meetings under section 17; (l) Such other functions, which a State Coordination Committee may perform under clause (g) of subsection (2) of section 18; (m) The allowances, which Members shall receive under sub-section (3) of section 19; (n) Rules of procedure, which a State Executive Committee shall observe in regard to transaction of business at its meetings under section 21; (o) The manner and purposes for which a person may be associated under sub-section (1) of section 22; (p) Fees and allowances which a person associated with the State Executive Committee may receive under sub-section (3) of Section 22; (q) Information or return which the employer in every establishment should furnish and the Special Employment Exchange to which such information or return shall be furnished under sub-section (1) of section 34; (r) The form and the manner in which record shall be maintained by an employer under sub-section (1) of section 37; (s) The form and manner in which an application shall be made under sub-section (1) of section 52; (t) The manner in which an order of refusal shall be communicated under sub-section (2) of section 52; (u) Facilities or standards required to be provided or maintained under sub-section (3) of section 52; (v) The period for which a certificate of registration shall be valid under clause (a) of sub-section (4) of section 52; (w) The form in which and conditions subject to which a certificate of registration shall be granted under clause (c) of sub-section (4) of section 52; (x) Period within which an appeal shall lie under sub-section (1) of section 54; (y) The manner in which an institution for persons with severe disabilities shall be maintained and conditions which have to be satisfied under sub-section (3) of section 56; (z) The salary, allowances and other terms and conditions of service of the Chief Commissioner under sub-section (6) of section 57; (za) the salary, allowances and other conditions of service of officers and employees under sub-section (6) of section 57; (zb) intervals at which the Chief Commissioner shall report to the Central Government under clause (d) of section 58; (zc) the salary, allowances and other terms and conditions of service of the Commissioner under subsection (3) of section 60; (zd) the salary, allowances and other conditions of service of officers and employees under subsection (6) of section 60; (ze) intervals within which the Commissioner shPWD ACT, 1995 THE PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES (EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES, PROTECTION OF RIGHTS AND FULL PARTICIPATION) ACT, 1995 PUBLISHED IN PART II, SECTION 1 OF THE EXTRAORDINARY GAZETTE OF INDIA                New Delhi, the 1st January, 1996/Pausa 11, 1917 (Saka) The following Act of Parliament received the assent of the President on the 1st January, 1996, and is hereby published for general information:- No.1 OF 1996 [1st January 1996] An Act to give effect to the Proclamation on the Full Participation and Equality of the People with Disabilities in the Asian and Pacific Region. WHEREAS the Meeting to Launch the Asian and Pacific Decade of Disabled Persons 1993-2002 convened by the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and Pacific held at Beijing on 1st to 5th December,1992, adopted the Proclamation on the Full Participation and Equality of People with Disabilities in the Asian and Pacific Region; AND WHEREAS India is a signatory to the said Proclamation; AND WHEREAS it is considered necessary to implement the Proclamation aforesaid. Be it enacted by Parliament in the Forty-sixth Year of the Republic of India as follows:- Chapter I Preliminary Chapter II The Central Coordination Committee Chapter III The State Coordination Committee Chapter IV Prevention And Early Detection Of Disabilities Chapter V Education Chapter VI Employment Chapter VII Affirmative Action Chapter VIII Non - Discrimination Chapter IX Research And Manpower Development Chapter X Recognition Of Institutions For Persons With Disabilities Chapter XI Institution For Persons With Severe Disabilities Chapter XII The Chief Commissioner And Commissioners For Persons With Disabilities Chapter XIII Social Security Chapter XIV Miscellaneous             CHAPTER I : PRELIMINARY 1. (1) This Act may be called the Persons With Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act, 1995. (2) It extends to the whole of India except the State of Jammu and Kashmir. (3) It shall come into force on such date as the Central Government may. by notification, appoint. 2. In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires,- (a) "Appropriate Government" means,- (i) In relation to the Central Government or any establishment wholly or substantially financed by that Government, or a Cantonment Board constituted under the Cantonment Act, 1924, the Central Government ; (ii) In relation to a State Government or any establishment wholly or substantially financed by that Government, or any local authority., other than a Cantonment Board, the State Government; (iii) In respect of the Central Co-ordination Committee and the Central Executive Committee, the Central Government; (iv) In respect of the State Co-ordination Committee and the S

Dear friends, Really a great effort from Mr. S.K. Rongta in the Supreme court. We congrats him on behalf of whole community for this land mark judgement on the employment quota. For those who are interested the full text of the judgement is as follows. the order is at point no. 54 onwards: Read below. Thanks - Ram Kamal Union of India & ANR. Vs. National Federation of the Blind & Ors. [Civil Appeal No.9096 of 2013 arising out of SLP (Civil) No. 7541 of 2009] P. Sathasivam, CJI. 1. Leave granted. 2. This appeal is directed against the final judgment and order dated 19.12.2008 passed by the High Court of Delhi at New Delhi in Writ Petition (C) No. 15828 of 2006 wherein the High Court interpreted Section 33 of the Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act, 1995 (in short 'the Act') and issued various directions to be complied with by the appellants herein. 3. Brief facts: a. National Federation of the Blind-Respondent No. 1 herein is an apex organization and a society registered under the Societies Registration Act, 1860, having its Head Office at New Delhi and is working for the protection of the rights of the visually challenged. b. In the year 2006, Respondent No. 1 herein filed a writ petition before the High Court in public interest seeking implementation of Section 33 of the Act alleging that the appellants herein have failed to provide reservation to the blind and low vision persons and they are virtually excluded from the process of recruitment to the Government posts as stipulated under the said Act. c. In the above backdrop, it is relevant to mention that way back in 1977, the erstwhile Ministry of Social Welfare, Government of India, made reservation in favour of the following three categories of disabled persons in Group C & D posts to the extent of 1 per cent each for the (i) Blind; (ii) Hearing and Speech Impairment; and (iii) persons suffering from locomotor disability. In the year 1986, the Department of Personnel & Training (DoPT), directed all the departments to take into account both identified and unidentified posts for working out the total number of vacancies to be reserved for each of the disabled categories. In spite of the above said executive order, various government departments and public sector undertakings did not give effect to the scheme of reservation which compelled Respondent No. 1 herein to organize a nation wide agitation, as a result of which, an agreement was arrived at between the parties on 27.08.1987 to undertake a Special Recruitment Drive for clearing up the backlog of vacancies. d. On 07.02.1996, the Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act, 1995 was brought into force making reservation of at least 3 percent posts in all government establishments to the extent of 1 per cent each for the persons suffering from (i) blindness or low vision; (ii) hearing impairment; and (iii) locomotor disability or cerebral palsy. After enactment of the said Act, Union of India issued various orders for ensuring proper implementation of the provisions of the Act for the persons with disabilities. e. Respondent No. 1 herein, by filing the above said petition before the High Court asserted that despite statutory provisions and various executive orders, discrimination against the persons with disabilities continued in filling up the vacancies in various government departments whereas it was contended by the other side that the Office Memorandum (OM) dated 29.12.2005, issued by the Department of Personnel & Training, inter alia provides a system for ensuring proper implementation of the provisions of the Act for the persons with disabilities. f. Vide order dated 19.12.2008, the High Court disposed of the petition directing the Union of India to modify the OM dated 29.12.2005 being inconsistent with the provisions of Section 33 of the Act and issued several other directions. g. Being aggrieved of the above, the appellants have preferred this appeal by way of special leave before this Court. h. Tamil Nadu Handicapped Federation Charitable Trust, Smt S. Rajeswari and Association for Physically Challenged People Ordnance Clothing Factory filed applications for impleadment. Vide order dated 22.07.2011, this Court did not allow them to implead but to act as intervenors in the proceedings. 4. Heard Ms. Indra Jaisingh, learned Additional Solicitor General for the Union of India, Mr. S.K. Rungta, learned senior counsel (R-1) appearing in person and Mr. R. Prabhakaran, learned counsel for Intervenors. Submissions: 5. Ms. Indra Jaisingh, learned Additional Solicitor General for the Union of India, after taking us through various provisions of the Act and OM(s) issued by the Government of India submitted that the impugned judgment of the High Court is against the provisions of the Act. She further pointed out that the finding of the High Court that in terms of Section 33 of the Act, 3% reservation for the disabled persons has to be computed on the basis of total strength of the cadre, i.e., both identified as well as unidentified posts is erroneous. In any event, according to her, the direction of the High Court to work out backlog vacancies for the disabled persons on the total cadre strength in different establishments within one month from the date of the order is impractical and not executable. It is further highlighted that according to Section 33 of the Act, reservation to the persons with disabilities in an establishment shall be 3% of the vacancies arising in the posts which are identified for the persons with disabilities. The High Court, by the impugned judgment, disturbed the very basic system of the reservation of posts for the persons with disabilities. She further highlighted that the reservation for Group C and D posts is being calculated on the basis of the vacancies in identified as well as unidentified posts prior to the Act came into existence and in view of the provisions of Section 72 of the Act, continued in the same way, however, reservation for Group A and B posts is being calculated on the basis of the vacancies for identified posts as per the provisions of the Act. 6. On the other hand, Mr. S.K. Rungta, learned senior counsel (R-1) appearing in person submitted that in terms of the provisions of the Act, more particularly, Sections 32 and 33 of the Act, it is obligatory on the part of the Government establishments to provide at least 3% reservation of posts in the total cadre strength and not in the identified vacancies. He further pointed out that though the Act was passed in 1995 since then the provisions have not been strictly implemented. He prayed for further time bound direction for implementation of the same. 7. Mr. R. Prabhakaran, learned counsel for intervenors reiterated the submissions made by Mr. S.K. Rungta. 8. We have perused all the relevant materials and considered the rival submissions. Relevant Provisions: 9. In order to answer the rival contentions, it is desirable to quote the relevant provision of the Act. Sections 2(a), 2(i), 2(j) and 2(k) of the Act read as under: "2(a) "appropriate Government" means,- i) in relation to the Central Government or any establishment wholly or substantially financed by that Government, or a Cantonment Board constituted under the Cantonment Act, 1924 (2 of 1924), the Central Government; ii) in relation to a State Government or any establishment wholly or substantially financed by that Government or any local authority, other than a Cantonment Board, the State Government; iii) in respect of the Central Co-ordination Committee and the Central Executive Committee, the Central Government; iv) in respect of the State Co-ordination Committee and the State Executive Committee, the State Government; 2(i) "Disability" means- i) blindness; ii) low vision; iii) leprosy-cured; iv) hearing impairment; v) locomotor disability; vi) mental retardation; vii) mental illness; 2(j) "employer" means,- i) in relation to a Government, the authority notified by the Head of the Department in this behalf or where no such authority is notified, the Head of the Department; and ii) in relation to an establishment, the Chief Executive Officer of that establishment; 2(k) "establishment" means a corporation established by or under a Central, Provincial or State Act, or an authority or a body owned or controlled or aided by the Government or a local authority or a Government company as defined in section 617 of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956) and includes Departments of a Government;" 10. Among the above definitions, we are more concerned with the definition of "establishment" under Section 2(k) of the Act, which is an exhaustive definition and covers (i) a corporation established by or under a Central, Provincial or State Act, or (ii) an authority or a body owned or controlled or aided by the Government or a local authority, or (iii) a Government company as defined in Section 617 of the Companies Act, 1956 and (iv) Departments of a Government. 11. Chapter VI of the Act deals with the employment of persons with disabilities. The relevant Sections of the said Chapter are as under:- "32. Identification of posts which can be reserved for persons with disabilities. - Appropriate Governments shall- (a) identify posts, in the establishments, which can be reserved for the persons with disability; (b) at periodical intervals not exceeding three years, review the list of posts identified and up-date the list taking into consideration the developments in technology. 33. Reservation of Posts - Every appropriate Government shall appoint in every establishment such percentage of vacancies not less than three per cent for persons or class of persons with disability of which one per cent each shall be reserved for persons suffering from- (i) blindness or low vision; (ii) hearing impairment; (iii) locomotor disability or cerebral palsy, in the posts identified for each disability: Provided that the appropriate Government may, having regard to the type of work carried on in any department or establishment, by notification subject to such conditions, if any, as may be specified in such notification, exempt any establishment from the provisions of this section. 36. Vacancies not filled up to be carried forward.- Where in any recruitment year any vacancy under section 33, cannot be filled up due to non-availability of a suitable person with disability or, for any other sufficient reason, such vacancy shall be carried forward in the succeeding recruitment year and if in the succeeding recruitment year also suitable person with disability is not available, it may first be filled by interchange among the three categories and only when there is no person with disability available for the post in that year, the employer shall fill up the vacancy by appointment of a person, other than a person with disability: Provided that if the nature of vacancies in an establishment is such that a given category of person cannot be employed, the vacancies may be interchanged among the three categories with the prior approval of the appropriate Government." 12. In exercise of the powers conferred by sub-sections (1) and (2) of Section 73 of the Act, the Central Government enacted the Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Rules, 1996. 13. After enactment of the above Act, in order to consolidate the existing instructions in line with the provisions of the Act, on 29.12.2005, Government of India, Department of Personnel and Training, issued certain instructions by way of an Office Memorandum (OM), with regard to the reservation for the persons with disabilities (physically handicapped persons) in posts and services. The said Office Memorandum specifically states that it shall supersede all previous instructions issued on the subject so far. Respondent No. 1 herein has commended various clauses of the OM dated 29.12.2005. The relevant clauses of the same are extracted herein below: "2. QUANTUM OF RESERVATION (i) Three percent of the vacancies, in case of direct recruitment to Group A, B, C and D posts shall be reserved for persons with disabilities of which one per cent each shall be reserved for persons suffering from (i) blindness or low vision, (ii) hearing impairment and (iii) locomotor disability or cerebral palsy in the posts identified for each disability; (ii) Three percent of the vacancies in case of promotion to Group D, and Group C posts in which the element of direct recruitment, if any, does not exceed 75%, shall be reserved for persons with disabilities of which one per cent each shall be reserved for persons suffering from (i) blindness or low vision, (ii) hearing impairment and (iii) locomotor disability or cerebral palsy in the posts identified for each disability. 3. EXEMPTION FROM RESERVATION: If any Department/Ministry considers it necessary to exempt any establishment partly or fully from the provisions of reservation for persons with disabilities of which one percent each shall be reserved for persons suffering from (i) blindness or low vision, (ii) hearing impairment and (iii) locomotor disability or cerebral palsy in the posts identified for each disability, it may make a reference to the Ministry of Social Justice and Employment giving full justification for the proposal. The grant of exemption shall be considered by an Inter-Departmental Committee set up by the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment. 4. IDENTIFICATION OF JOBS/POSTS: The Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment have identified the jobs/posts suitable to be held by persons with disabilities and the physical requirement for all such jobs/posts vide their notification no. 16-25/99.NII dated 31.5.2001. The jobs/posts given in Annexure II of the said notification as amended from time to time shall be used to give effect to 3 per cent reservation to the persons with disabilities. It may, however, be noted that: (a) The nomenclature used for any job/post shall mean and include nomenclature used for other comparable jobs/posts having identical functions. (b) The list of jobs/posts notified by the Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment is not exhaustive. The concerned Ministries/Departments shall have the discretion to identify jobs/posts in addition to the jobs/posts already identified by the Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment. However, no Ministry/Department/Establishment shall exclude any identified job/post from the purview of reservation at its own discretion. (c) If a job/post identified for persons with disabilities is shifted from one group or grade to another group or grade due to change in the pay-scale or otherwise, the job/post shall remain identified. 13. COMPUTATION OF RESERVATION: Reservation for persons with disabilities in case of Group C and Group D posts shall be computed on the basis of total number of vacancies occurring in all Group C or Group D posts, as the case may be, in the establishment, although the recruitment of the persons with disabilities would only be in the posts identified suitable for them. The number of vacancies to be reserved for the persons with disabilities in case of direct recruitment to Group C posts in an establishment shall be computed by taking into account the total number of vacancies arising in Group C posts for being filled by direct recruitment in a recruitment year both in the identified and non-identified posts under the establishment. The same procedure shall apply for Group D posts. Similarly, all vacancies in promotion quota shall be taken into account while computing reservation in promotion in Group C and Group D posts. Since reservation is limited to identified posts only and number of vacancies reserved is computed on the basis of total vacancies (in identified posts as well as unidentified posts), it is possible that number of persons appointed by reservation in an identified posts may exceed 3 percent. 14. Reservation for persons with disabilities in Group A posts shall be computed on the basis of vacancies occurring in direct recruitment quota in all the identified Group A posts in the establishment. The same method of computation applies for Group B posts. 15. EFFECTING RESERVATION - MAINTENANCE OF ROSTERS: (a) all establishments shall maintain separate 100 point reservation roster registers in the format given in Annexure II for determining/effecting reservation for the disabled - one each for Group A posts filled by direct recruitment, Group B posts filled by direct recruitment, Group C posts filled by direct recruitment, Group C posts filled by promotion, Group D posts filled by direct recruitment and Group D posts filled by promotion. (b) Each register shall have cycles of 100 points and each cycle of 100 points shall be divided into three blocks, comprising the following points : 1st Block - point No.1 to point No.33 2nd Block - point No.34 to point No.66 3rd Block - point No.67 to point No.100 (c) Points 1, 34, and 67 of the roster shall be earmarked reserved for persons with disabilities - one point for each of the three categories of disabilities. The head of the establishment shall decide the categories of disabilities for which the points 1, 34 and 67 will be reserved keeping in view all relevant facts. (d) All the vacancies in Group C posts falling in direct recruitment quota arising in the establishment shall be entered in the relevant roster register. If the post falling at point No.1 is not identified for the disabled or the head of the establishment considers it desirable not to fill up by a disabled person or it is not possible to fill up that post by the disabled for any other person, one of the vacancies falling at any of the points from 2 to 33 shall be treated as reserved for the disabled and filled as such. Likewise a vacancy falling at any of the points from 34 to 66 or from 67 to 100 shall be filled by the disabled. The purpose of keeping points 1, 34 and 67 as reserved is to fill up the first available suitable vacancy from 1 to 33, first available suitable vacancy from 34 to 66 and first available suitable vacancy from 67 to 100 persons with disabilities. (e) There is a possibility that none of the vacancies from 1 to 33 is suitable for any category of the disabled. In that case two vacancies from 34 to 66 shall be filled as reserved for persons with disabilities. If the vacancies from 34 to 66 are also not suitable for any category, three vacancies shall be filled as reserved from the third block containing points from 67 to 100. This means that if no vacancy can be reserved in a particular block, it shall be carried into the next block. (f) After all the 100 points of the roster are covered, a fresh cycle of 100 points shall start. (g) If the number of vacancies in a year is such as to cover only one block or two, discretion as to which category of the disabled should be accommodated first shall vest in the head of the establishment, who shall decide on the basis of the nature of the post, the level of representation of the specific disabled category in the concerned grade/post etc. (h) A separate roster shall be maintained for Group C posts filled by promotion and procedure as explained above shall be followed for giving reservation to persons with disabilities. Likewise two separate rosters shall be maintained for Group D posts, one for the posts filled by direct recruitment and another for posts filled by promotion. (i) Reservation in Group A and Group B posts is determined on the basis of vacancies in the identified posts only. Separate rosters for Group A posts and Group B posts in the establishment shall be maintained. In the rosters maintained for Group A and Group B posts, all vacancies of direct recruitment arising in identified posts shall be entered and reservation shall be effected the same way as explained above. 16. INTER SE EXCHANGE AND CARRY FORWARD OF RESERVATION IN CASE OF DIRECT RECRUITMENT (a) Reservation for each of the three categories of persons with disabilities shall be made separately. But if the nature of vacancies in an establishment is such that a person of a specific category of disability cannot be employed, the vacancies may be interchanged among the three categories with the approval of the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment and reservation may be determined and vacancies filled accordingly. (b) If any vacancy reserved for any category of disability cannot be filled due to non-availability of a suitable person with that disability or, for any other sufficient reason, such vacancy shall not be filled and shall be carried forward as a 'backlog reserved vacancy' to the subsequent recruitment year. (c) In the subsequent recruitment year the backlog reserved vacancy shall be treated as reserved for the category of disability for which it was kept reserved in the initial year of recruitment. However, if a suitable person with that disability is not available, it may be filled by interchange among the three categories of disabilities. In case no suitable person with disability is available for filling up the post in the subsequent year also, the employer may fill up the vacancy by appointment of a person other than a person with disability. If the vacancy is filled by a person with disability of the category for which it was reserved or by a person of other category of disability by inter se exchange in the subsequent recruitment year, it will be treated to have been filled by reservation. But if the vacancy is filled by a person other than a person with disability in the subsequent recruitment year, reservation shall be carried forward for a further period upto two recruitment years where after the reservation shall lapse. In these two subsequent years, if situation so arises, the procedure for filling up the reserved vacancy shall be the same as followed in the first subsequent recruitment year. 19. HORIZONTALITY OF RESERVATION FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES: Reservation for backward classes of citizens (SCs, STs and OBCs) is called vertical reservation and the reservation for categories such as persons with disabilities and ex- servicemen is called horizontal reservation. Horizontal reservation cuts across vertical reservation (in what is called interlocking reservation) and person selected against the quota for persons with disabilities have to be placed in the appropriate category viz. SC/ST/OBC/General candidates depending upon the category to which they belong in the roster meant for reservation of SCs/STs/OBCs. To illustrate, if in a given year there are two vacancies reserved for the persons with disabilities and out of two persons with disabilities appointed, one belongs to a Scheduled Caste and the other to general category then the disabled SC candidate shall be adjusted against the SC point in the reservation roster and the general candidate against unreserved point in the relevant reservation roster. In case none of the vacancies falls on point reserved for the SCs, the disabled candidate belonging to SC shall be adjusted in future against the next available vacancy reserved for SCs. 20. Since the persons with disabilities have to be placed in the appropriate category viz. SC/ST/OBC/ General in the roster meant for reservation of SCs/STs/OBCs, the application form for the post should require the candidates applying under the quota reserved for persons with disabilities to indicate whether they belong to SC/ST/OBC or General category." 14. Clauses 21 and 22 of the said OM enable the Government for relaxation in age limit as well as standard of suitability. 15. After the OM dated 29.12.2005, based on the representations made by Respondent No. 1 herein, another OM dated 26.04.2006 came to be issued. The details and the directions contained in the said OM are as follows: "Dated the 26th April, 2006 OFFICE MEMORANDUM Sub: Reservation for the Persons with Disabilities The undersigned is directed to say that the Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act, 1995 which came into existence on 01.01.1996 provides for reservation for persons with disability in the posts identified for three categories of disabilities namely (i) blindness or low vision, (ii) hearing impairment and (iii) locomotor disability or cerebral palsy. Instructions have also been issued by this Department for providing reservation for such persons. In spite of the Act and the instructions of this Department, vacancies were not earmarked reserved or were not filled by reservation in some establishments. 2. The matter has been considered carefully and it has been decided that reservation for persons with disabilities should be implemented in right earnest and there should be no deviation from the scheme of reservation, particularly after the Act came into effect. In order to achieve this objective, all the establishments should prepare the reservation roster registers as provided in this Department's O.M. No. 36035/3/2004-Estt (Res) dated 29.12.2005 starting from the year 1996 and reservation for persons with disabilities be earmarked as per instructions contained in that OM. If some or all the vacancies so earmarked had not been filled by reservation and were filled by able bodied persons either for the reason that points of reservation had not been earmarked properly at the appropriate time or persons with disabilities did not become available, such unutilized reservation may be treated as having been carried forward to the first recruitment year occurring after issue of this O.M. and be filled as such. If it is not possible to fill up such reserved vacancies during the said recruitment year, reservation would be carried forward for further two years, whereafter it may be treated as lapsed. 3. It has been observed that some recruiting agencies declare in their advertisements that blind/partially blind candidates need not apply and that separate examinations would be conducted for visually handicapped candidates. Attention is invited to para 7 of this Department's O.M. No. 36035/3/2004-Estt (Res) dated 29.12.2005 which provides that persons with disabilities selected on their own merit will not be adjusted against the reserved share of vacancies. It means that persons with disabilities who are selected on their own merit have to be adjusted against the unreserved vacancies and reservation has to be given in addition. If visually handicapped candidates or any other category of handicapped candidates are debarred from applying on the ground that a separate examination would be conducted for them, chances of handicapped candidates being selected on their own merit would be eliminated. Thus, debarring of any category of handicapped candidates in the above manner is against the provisions contained in the aforesaid O.M. It is, therefore, requested that persons with disabilities should not be debarred from applying for the posts identified suitable for them and should be provided opportunity to compete for the unreserved vacancies as well by holding a common examination. 4. Contents of this O.M. may be brought to the notice of all concerned. Sd/- (K.G.Verma) Deputy Secretary to the Govt. of India" 16. Another OM dated 10.12.2008, issued by the Department of Personnel and Training, was also brought to our notice whereunder a Special Recruitment Drive to fill up the backlog reserved vacancies for the persons with disabilities was initiated. The said OM mainly speaks about filling up of "backlog reserved vacancies". Relevant portion of the said OM is extracted herein below: "Dated the 10th December, 2008 OFFICE MEMORANDUM Sub: Special Recruitment Drive to fill up the backlog reserved vacancies for Persons with Disabilities The undersigned is directed to say that this Department's O.M. No. 36035/3/2004-Estt(Res) dated 29.12.2005 provides that if any vacancy reserved for any category of disability cannot be filled due to non-availability of a suitable person with that disability or for any other sufficient reason, such vacancy is not filled and is carried forward as a 'backlog reserved vacancy' to the subsequent recruitment year. In the subsequent recruitment year, the 'backlog reserved vacancy' is treated as reserved for the category of disability for which it was kept reserved in the initial year of recruitment and filled as such. However, if a suitable person with that disability is not available in the subsequent recruitment also, it may be filled by interchange among the three categories of disabilities, failing which by appointment of a person other than a person with disability. It may, thus, be seen that if a vacancy is earmarked reserved for any category of disability and a suitable person with that disability is not available to fill it up in the initial year of recruitment, it becomes a 'backlog reserved vacancy' for first subsequent recruitment year. 2. As per instructions existing prior to issue of O.M. dated 29.12.2005, if in any year, suitable physically handicapped candidates were not available to fill up a reserved vacancy, the vacancy was filled by an other category candidate and reservation was carried forward for a period of upto three recruitment years. In the event of non-availability of suitable persons with disabilities, the reserved vacancies were not kept unfilled. Thus there was no provision of backlog reserved vacancies of persons with disabilities prior to 29.12.2005. Nevertheless, it is possible that some Ministries/Departments/ establishments might have kept some vacancies earmarked reserved for the persons with disability unfilled due to non- availability of persons with disability. If there exist such vacancies, these will be treated as backlog reserved vacancies for the current recruitment year" 17. By issuing such directions, the Department of Personnel and Training directed all the Ministries/Departments to launch a Special Recruitment Drive and fixed target dates for fulfilling various stages. Discussion: 18. In the light of the above statutory provisions as well as various clauses of the OM dated 29.12.2005, let us analyze whether the High Court was justified in passing the impugned judgment. 19. Before adverting to the rival contentions submitted by the appellants and the respondents, it is relevant to comprehend the background and the objective of the Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act, 1995. 20. India as a welfare State is committed to promote overall development of its citizens including those who are differently abled in order to enable them to lead a life of dignity, equality, freedom and justice as mandated by the Constitution of India. The roots of statutory provisions for ensuring equality and equalization of opportunities to the differently abled citizens in our country could be traced in Part III and Part IV of the Constitution. For the persons with disabilities, the changing world offers more new opportunities owing to technological advancement, however, the actual limitation surfaces only when they are not provided with equal opportunities. Therefore, bringing them in the society based on their capabilities is the need of the hour. 21. Although, the Disability Rights Movement in India commenced way back in 1977, of which Respondent No. 1 herein was an active participant, it acquired the requisite sanction only at the launch of the Asian and Pacific Decade of Disabled Persons in 1993-2002, which gave a definite boost to the movement. The main need that emerged from the meet was for a comprehensive legislation to protect the rights of persons with disabilities. In this light, the crucial legislation was enacted in 1995 viz., the Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act, 1995 which empowers persons with disabilities and ensures protection of their rights. The Act, in addition to its other prospects, also seeks for better employment opportunities to persons with disabilities by way of reservation of posts and establishment of a Special Employment Exchange for them. 22. For the same, Section 32 of the Act stipulates for identification of posts which can be reserved for persons with disabilities. Section 33 provides for reservation of posts and Section 36 thereof provides that in case a vacancy is not filled up due to non-availability of a suitable person with disability, in any recruitment year such vacancy is to be carried forward in the succeeding recruitment year. The difference of opinion between the appellants and the respondents arises on the point of interpretation of these sections. 23. It is the stand of the Union of India that the Act provides for only 3% reservation in the vacancies in the posts identified for the disabled persons and not on the total cadre strength of the establishment whereas Mr. S.K. Rungta, learned senior counsel (R-1) appearing in person submitted that accepting the interpretation proposed by the Union of India will flout the policy of reservation encompassed under Section 33 of the Act. He further submitted that the High Court has rightly held that the reservation of 3% for differently abled persons in conformity with the Act should have to be computed on the basis of the total strength of a cadre and not just on the basis of the vacancies available in the posts that are identified for differently abled persons, thereby declaring certain clauses of the OM dated 29.12.2005 as unacceptable and contrary to the mandate of Section 33 of the Act. 24. Two aspects of the impugned judgment have been challenged before this Court:- (a) The manner of computing 3% reservation for the persons with the disabilities as per Section 33 of the Act. (b) Whether post based reservation must be adhered to or vacancy based reservation. 25. Now let us consider the reasoning of the High Court and the submissions made by the parties. 26. Primarily, we would like to clarify that there is a sea of difference in computing reservation on the basis of total cadre strength and on the basis of total vacancies (both inclusive of identified and unidentified) in the cadre strength. At the outset, a reference to the impugned OM dated 29.12.2005 would, in unequivocal terms, establish that the matter in dispute in the given case is whether the latter method of computation of reservation will uniformly apply to the posts in Group A, B, C and D or will it be applicable only to Group C and D. The question pertaining to computation of reservation on the basis of total cadre strength does not even arise in the given circumstance of the case. However, the High Court, in the impugned judgment, went on to uphold the view that the computation of reservation must be on the basis of total cadre strength which is clearly erroneous on the face of it. Inadvertently, the respondents herein have also adopted the same line of argument in their oral and written submissions. As a result, the point for consideration before this Court is whether the modus of computation of reservation on the basis of total number of vacancies (both inclusive of identified and unidentified) in the cadre strength will uniformly apply to Group A, B, C and D or will it be applicable only to Group C and D. 27. It is the stand of the Union of India that for vivid understanding of the reservation policy laid down under Section 33 of the Act, it is essential to read together Sections 32 and 33 of the Act. It was also submitted that a conjoint reading of the above referred sections, mandates only reservation of vacancies in the identified posts and not in all the posts or against the total number of vacancies in the cadre strength. However, it was also admitted that the computation of reservation is being done in respect of Group C and D posts on the basis of total number of vacancies (both inclusive of identified and unidentified) in the cadre strength since 1977. In fact, the above said contention has been raised in Govt. of India through Secretary and Anr. vs. Ravi Prakash Gupta & Anr. (2010) 7 SCC 626 and, therefore, it is no longer res integra. 28. The question for determination raised in this case is whether the reservation provided for the disabled persons under Section 33 of the Act is dependent upon the identification of posts as stipulated by Section 32. In the aforementioned case, the Government of India sought to contend that since they have conducted the exercise of identification of posts in civil services in terms of Section 32 only in the year 2005, the reservation has to be computed and applied only with reference to the vacancies filled up from 2005 onwards and not from 1996 when the Act came into force. This Court, after examining the inter-dependence of Sections 32 and 33 viz., identification of posts and the scheme of reservation, rejected this contention and held as follows:- "25. .....The submission made on behalf of the Union of India regarding the implementation of the provisions of Section 33 of the Disabilities Act, 1995, only after identification of posts suitable for such appointment, under Section 32 thereof, runs counter to the legislative intent with which the Act was enacted. To accept such a submission would amount to accepting a situation where the provisions of Section 33 of the aforesaid Act could be kept deferred indefinitely by bureaucratic inaction. Such a stand taken by the petitioners before the High Court was rightly rejected. Accordingly, the submission made on behalf of the Union of India that identification of Grade `A' and `B' posts in the I.A.S. was undertaken after the year 2005 is not of much substance. 26. As has been pointed out by the High Court, neither Section 32 nor Section 33 of the aforesaid Act makes any distinction with regard to Groups A, B, C and D posts. They only speak of identification and reservation of posts for people with disabilities, though the proviso to Section 33 does empower the appropriate Government to exempt any establishment from the provisions of the said Section, having regard to the type of work carried on in any department or establishment. No such exemption has been pleaded or brought to our notice on behalf of the petitioners. 27. It is only logical that, as provided in Section 32 of the aforesaid Act, posts have to be identified for reservation for the purposes of Section 33, but such identification was meant to be simultaneously undertaken with the coming into operation of the Act, to give effect to the provisions of Section 33. The legislature never intended the provisions of Section 32 of the Act to be used as a tool to deny the benefits of Section 33 to these categories of disabled persons indicated therein. Such a submission strikes at the foundation of the provisions relating to the duty cast upon the appropriate Government to make appointments in every establishment. 29. While it cannot be denied that unless posts are identified for the purposes of Section 33 of the aforesaid Act, no appointments from the reserved categories contained therein can be made, and that to such extent the provisions of Section 33 are dependent on Section 32 of the Act, as submitted by the learned ASG, but the extent of such dependence would be for the purpose of making appointments and not for the purpose of making reservation. In other words, reservation under Section 33 of the Act is not dependent on identification, as urged on behalf of the Union of India, though a duty has been cast upon the appropriate Government to make appointments in the number of posts reserved for the three categories mentioned in Section 33 of the Act in respect of persons suffering from the disabilities spelt out therein. In fact, a situation has also been noticed where on account of non-availability of candidates some of the reserved posts could remain vacant in a given year. For meeting such eventualities, provision was made to carry forward such vacancies for two years after which they would lapse. Since in the instant case such a situation did not arise and posts were not reserved under Section 33 of the Disabilities Act, 1995, the question of carrying forward of vacancies or lapse thereof, does not arise. 31. We, therefore, see no reason to interfere with the judgment of the High Court impugned in the Special Leave Petition which is, accordingly, dismissed with costs. All interim orders are vacated. The petitioners are given eight weeks' time from today to give effect to the directions of the High Court." 29. In the light of the above pronouncement, it is clear that the scope of identification comes into picture only at the time of appointment of a person in the post identified for disabled persons and is not necessarily relevant at the time of computing 3% reservation under Section 33 of the Act. In succinct, it was held in Ravi Prakash Gupta (supra) that Section 32 of the Act is not a precondition for computation of reservation of 3% under Section 33 of the Act rather Section 32 is the following effect of Section 33. 30. Apart from the reasoning of this Court in Ravi Prakash Gupta (supra), even a reading of Section 33, at the outset, establishes vividly the intention of the legislature viz., reservation of 3% for differently abled persons should have to be computed on the basis of total vacancies in the strength of a cadre and not just on the basis of the vacancies available in the identified posts. There is no ambiguity in the language of Section 33 and from the construction of the said statutory provision only one meaning is possible. 31. A perusal of Section 33 of the Act reveals that this section has been divided into three parts. The first part is "every appropriate Government shall appoint in every establishment such percentage of vacancies not less than 3% for persons or class of persons with disability." It is evident from this part that it mandates every appropriate Government shall appoint a minimum of 3% vacancies in its establishments for persons with disabilities. In this light, the contention of the Union of India that reservation in terms of Section 33 has to be computed against identified posts only is not tenable by any method of interpretation of this part of the Section. 32. The second part of this section starts as follows: "...of which one percent each shall be reserved for persons suffering from blindness or low vision, hearing impairment & locomotor disability or cerebral palsy in the posts identified for each disability." From the above, it is clear that it deals with distribution of 3% posts in every establishment among 3 categories of disabilities. It starts from the word "of which". The word "of which" has to relate to appointing not less than 3% vacancies in an establishment and, in any way, it does not refer to the identified posts. In fact, the contention of the Union of India is sought to be justified by bringing the last portion of the second part of the section viz. "....identified posts" in this very first part which deals with the statutory obligation imposed upon the appropriate Government to "appoint not less than 3% vacancies for the persons or class of persons with disabilities." In our considered view, it is not plausible in the light of established rules of interpretation. The minimum level of representation of persons with disabilities has been provided in this very first part and the second part deals with the distribution of this 3% among the three categories of disabilities. Further, in the last portion of the second part the words used are "in the identified posts for each disability" and not "of identified posts". This can only mean that out of minimum 3% of vacancies of posts in the establishments 1% each has to be given to each of the 3 categories of disability viz., blind and low vision, hearing impaired and locomotor disabled or cerebral palsy separately and the number of appointments equivalent to the 1% for each disability out of total 3% has to be made against the vacancies in the identified posts. The attempt to read identified posts in the first part itself and also to read the same to have any relation with the computation of reservation is completely misconceived. 33. The third part of the Section is the proviso which reads thus: "Provided that the appropriate Government may, having regard to the type of work carried on in any department or establishment, by notification subject to such conditions, if any, as may be specified in such notification, exempt any establishment from the provisions of this section." The proviso also justifies the above said interpretation that the computation of reservation has to be against the total number vacancies in the cadre strength and not against the identified posts. Had the legislature intended to mandate for computation of reservation against the identified posts only, there was no need for inserting the proviso to Section which empowers the appropriate Government to exempt any establishment either partly or fully from the purview of the Section subject to such conditions contained in the notification to be issued in the Official Gazette in this behalf. Certainly, the legislature did not intend to give such arbitrary power for exemption from reservation for persons with disabilities to be exercised by the appropriate Government when the computation is intended to be made against the identified posts. 34. In this regard, another provision of the said Act also supports this interpretation. Section 41 of the said Act mandates the appropriate Government to frame incentive schemes for employers with a view to ensure that 5% of their work force is composed of persons with disabilities. The said section is reproduced hereinbelow: "41. Incentives to employers to ensure five per cent of the work force is composed of persons with disabilities.- The appropriate Government and the local authorities shall, within limits to their economic capacity and development, provide incentives to employers both in public and private sectors to ensure that at least five percent of their work force is composed of persons with disabilities." Thus, on a conjoint reading of Sections 33 and 41, it is clear that while Section 33 provides for a minimum level of representation of 3% in the establishments of appropriate Government, the legislature intended to ensure 5% of representation in the entire work force both in public as well as private sector. 35. Moreover, the intention of the legislature while framing the Act can also be inferred from the Draft Rights of Persons with Disabilities Bill, 2012, which is pending in the Parliament for approval. In Chapter 6 of the Bill, viz., Special Provisions for Persons with Benchmark Disabilities, similar sections like Sections 32 & 33 in the Act have been incorporated under Sections 38 and 39 which are as under:- "Section 38. Identification of Posts which can be Reserved for Persons with Benchmark Disabilities: Appropriate Governments shall - (a) identify posts in establishments under them which can be reserved for persons with benchmark disability as mentioned in section 39; (b) at periodical intervals not exceeding three year s, review and revise the list of identified posts, taking into consideration developments in technology. Section 39. Reservation of Posts for Persons with Benchmark Disabilities:- (1) Every appropriate Government shall reserve, in every establishment under them, not less than 5% of the vacancies meant to be filled by direct recruitment, for persons or class of persons with benchmark disability, of which 1% each shall be of all posts reserved for persons with following disabilities:- i) blindness & low vision (with reservation of 0.5% of the vacancies for each of the two disabilities). ii) hearing impairment & speech impairment. iii) locomotor disability including cerebral palsy, leprosy cured and muscular dystrophy. iv) autism, intellectual disability and mental illness v) multiple disabilities from among i to iv above including deaf blindness Provided that the appropriate Government may, having regard to the type of work carried on in any department or establishment, by notification subject to such conditions, if any, as may be specified in such notification, exempt any establishment from the provisions of this section. (2) If sufficient number of qualified persons with benchmark disabilities are not available in a particular year, then the reservation may be carried forward for upto the next three recruitment years, and if in such succeeding recruitment years also a suitable person with benchmark disability is not available, then the post in the fourth year may be first filled by interchange among the categories of disabilities; and only when there is no person with any benchmark disability available for the post in that year, the vacancy may be filled by appointment of a person, other than a person with benchmark disability." A perusal of Sections 38 and 39 of the Bill clarifies all the ambiguities raised in this appeal. The intention of the legislature is clearly to reserve in every establishment under the appropriate Government, not less than 3% of the vacancies for the persons or class of persons with disability, of which 1% each shall be reserved for persons suffering from blindness or low vision, hearing impairment and locomotor disability or cerebral palsy in the posts identified for each disability. 36. Admittedly, the Act is a social legislation enacted for the benefit of persons with disabilities and its provisions must be interpreted in order to fulfill its objective. Besides, it is a settled rule of interpretation that if the language of a statutory provision is unambiguous, it has to be interpreted according to the plain meaning of the said statutory provision. In the present case, the plain and unambiguous meaning of Section 33 is that every appropriate Government has to appoint a minimum of 3% vacancies in an establishment out of which 1% each shall be reserved for persons suffering from blindness and low vision, persons suffering from hearing impairment and persons suffering from locomotor or cerebral palsy. 37. To illustrate, if there are 100 vacancies of 100 posts in an establishment, the concerned establishment will have to reserve a minimum of 3% for persons with disabilities out of which at least 1% has to be reserved separately for each of the following disabilities: persons suffering from blindness or low vision, persons suffering from hearing impairment and the persons suffering from locomotor disability or cerebral palsy. Appointment of 1 blind person against 1 vacancy reserved for him/her will be made against a vacancy in an identified post for instance, the post of peon, which is identified for him in group D. Similarly, one hearing impaired will be appointed against one reserved vacancy for that category in the post of store attendant in group D post. Likewise, one person suffering from locomotor disability or cerebral palsy will be appointed against the post of "Farash" group D post identified for that category of disability. It was argued on behalf of Union of India with reference to the post of driver that since the said post is not suitable to be manned by a person suffering from blindness, the above interpretation of the Section would be against the administrative exigencies. Such an argument is wholly misconceived. A given post may not be identified as suitable for one category of disability, the same could be identified as suitable for another category or categories of disability entitled to the benefit of reservation. In fact, the second part of the Section has clarified this situation by providing that the number of vacancies equivalent to 1% for each of the aforementioned three categories will be filled up by the respective category by using vacancies in identified posts for each of them for the purposes of appointment. 38. It has also been submitted on behalf of the appellants herein that since reservation of persons with disabilities in Group C and D has been in force prior to the enactment and is being made against the total number of vacancies in the cadre strength according to the OM dated 29.12.2005 but the actual import of Section 33 is that it has to be computed against identified posts only. This argument is also completely misconceived in view of the plain language of the said Section, as deliberated above. Even, for the sake of arguments, if we accept that the computation of reservation in respect of Group C and D posts is against the total vacancies in the cadre strength because of the applicability of the scheme of reservation in Group C and D posts prior to enactment, Section 33 does not distinguish the manner of computation of reservation between Group A and B posts or Group C and D posts respectively. As such, one statutory provision cannot be interpreted and applied differently for the same subject matter. 39. Further, if we accept the interpretation contended by the appellants that computation of reservation has to be against the identified posts only, it would result into uncertainty of the application of the scheme of reservation because experience has shown that identification has never been uniform between the Centre and States and even between the Departments of any Government. For example, while a post of middle school teacher has been notified as identified as suitable for the blind and low vision by the Central Government, it has not been identified as suitable for the blind and low vision in some States such as Gujarat and J&K etc. This has led to a series of litigations which have been pending in various High Courts. In addition, Para 4 of the OM dated 29.12.2005 dealing with the issue of identification of jobs/posts in sub clause (b) states that list of the jobs/posts notified by the Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment is not exhaustive which further makes the computation of reservation uncertain and arbitrary in the event of acceptance of the contention raised by the appellants. 40. Another contention raised by the appellants is that the computation of reservation against the total vacancies in the cadre strength in Group A & B will violate the rule of 50% ceiling of reservation in favour of SC, ST and OBC as laid down by this Court in Indra Sawhney vs. Union of India and others AIR 1993 SC 477. This contention is also not tenable and is against the abovesaid judgment. It is difficult to understand as to how the computation of reservation against total vacancies in the cadre strength in Group A and B will violate 50% ceiling when its computation on that basis in Group C and D will not violate the said ceiling. There is no rationale of distinguishing between the manner of computation of reservation with regard to Group A and B posts on the one hand and manner of computation of reservation with regard to Group C and D posts on the other on this ground. 41. A perusal of Indra Sawhney (supra) would reveal that the ceiling of 50% reservation applies only to reservation in favour of other Backward classes under Article 16(4) of the Constitution of India whereas the reservation in favour of persons with disabilities is horizontal, which is under Article 16(1) of the Constitution. In fact, this Court in the said pronouncement has used the example of 3% reservation in favour of persons with disabilities while dealing with the rule of 50% ceiling. Para 95 of the judgment clearly brings out that after selection and appointment of candidates under reservation for persons with disabilities they will be placed in the respective rosters of reserved category or open category respectively on the basis of the category to which they belong and, thus, the reservation for persons with disabilities per se has nothing to do with the ceiling of 50%. Para 95 is reproduced as follows:- "95. ......all reservations are not of the same nature. There are two types of reservations, which may, for the sake of convenience, be referred to as 'vertical reservations' and 'horizontal reservations'. The reservations in favour of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and other backward classes [under Article 16(4)] may be called vertical reservations whereas reservations in favour of physically handicapped [under Clause (1) of Article 16] can be referred to as horizontal reservations. Horizontal reservations cut across the vertical reservations - what is called inter-locking reservations. To be more precise, suppose 3% of the vacancies are reserved in favour of physically handicapped persons; this would be a reservation relatable to Clause (1) of Article 16. The persons selected against this quota will be placed in the appropriate category; if he belongs to S.C. category he will be placed in that quota by making necessary adjustments; similarly, if he belongs to open competition (O.C.) category, he will be placed in that category by making necessary adjustments. Even after providing for these horizontal reservations, the percentage of reservations in favour of backward class of citizens remains - and should remain - the same............." 42. Yet another contention raised by the appellants is that the reservation for persons with disabilities must be vacancy based reservation whereas Respondent No. 1 herein contended that it must be post based reservation as laid down by the High Court in the impugned judgment. Respondent No. 1 herein relied upon the heading of Section 33 of the Act, viz., 'Reservation of Posts', to propose the view that the reservation policy contemplated under Section 33 is post based reservation. 43. It is settled law that while interpreting any provision of a statute the plain meaning has to be given effect and if language therein is simple and unambiguous, there is no need to traverse beyond the same. Likewise, if the language of the relevant section gives a simple meaning and message, it should be interpreted in such a way and there is no need to give any weightage to headings of those paragraphs. This aspect has been clarified in Prakash Nath Khanna & Anr. vs. Commissioner of Income Tax & Anr., (2004) 9 SCC 686. Paragraph 13 of the said judgment is relevant which reads as under: "13. It is a well-settled principle in law that the court cannot read anything into a statutory provision which is plain and unambiguous. A statute is an edict of the legislature. The language employed in a statute is the determinative factor of legislative intent. The first and primary rule of construction is that the intention of the legislation must be found in the words used by the legislature itself. The question is not what may be supposed and has been intended but what has been said. "Statutes should be construed, not as theorems of Euclid", Judge Learned Hand said, "but words must be construed with some imagination of the purposes which lie behind them". (See Lenigh Valley Coal Co. v. Yensavage. The view was reiterated in Union of India v. Filip Tiago De Gama of Vedem Vasco De Gama and Padma Sundara Rao v. State of T.N.." 44. It is clear that when the provision is plainly worded and unambiguous, it has to be interpreted in such a way that the Court must avoid the danger of a prior determination of the meaning of a provision based on their own preconceived notions of ideological structure or scheme into which the provision to be interpreted is somewhat fitted. While interpreting the provisions, the Court only interprets the law and cannot legislate it. It is the function of the Legislature to amend, modify or repeal it, if deemed necessary. 45. The heading of a Section or marginal note may be relied upon to clear any doubt or ambiguity in the interpretation of the provision and to discern the legislative intent. However, when the Section is clear and unambiguous, there is no need to traverse beyond those words, hence, the headings or marginal notes cannot control the meaning of the body of the section. Therefore, the contention of Respondent No. 1 herein that the heading of Section 33 of the Act is "Reservation of posts" will not play a crucial role, when the Section is clear and unambiguous. 46. Further, the respondents heavily relied on a decision of the Constitution Bench in R.K Sabharwal and others vs. State of Punjab and others (1995) 2 SCC 745 to substantiate their contention. Para 6 reads as under:- "6. The expressions "posts" and "vacancies", often used in the executive instructions providing for reservations, are rather problematical. The word "post" means an appointment, job, office or employment. A position to which a person is appointed. "Vacancy" means an unoccupied post or office. The plain meaning of the two expressions make it clear that there must be a 'post' in existence to enable the 'vacancy' to occur. The cadre-strength is always measured by the number of posts comprising the cadre. Right to be considered for appointment can only be claimed in respect of a post in a cadre. As a consequence the percentage of reservation has to be worked out in relation to the number of posts, which form the cadre-strength. The concept of 'vacancy' has no relevance in operating the percentage of reservation." 47. Adhering to the decision laid by the Constitution Bench in R.K Sabharwal (supra), the High Court held as follows:- 16. The Disabilities Act was enacted for protection of the rights of the disabled in various spheres like education, training, employment and to remove any discrimination against them in the sharing of development benefits vis-à-vis non-disabled persons. In the light of the legislative aim it is necessary to give purposive interpretation to section 33 with a view to achieve the legislative intendment of attaining equalization of opportunities for persons with disabilities. The fact that the vacancy-based roster is to be maintained does not mean that 3% reservation has to be computed only on the basis of vacancy. The difference between the posts and vacancies has been succinctly pointed out in the Supreme Court decision in the case of R.K Sabharwal and Others vs state of Punjab and others AIR 1995 SC 1371 wherein it was held that the word "post" means an appointment, job, office or employment, a position to which a person is appointed. "Vacancy" means an unoccupied post or office. The plain meaning of the two expressions make it clear that there must be a 'post' in existence to enable the vacancy to occur. The cadre-strength is always measured by the number of posts comprising the cadre. Right to be considered for appointment can only be claimed in respect of a post in a cadre. As a consequence the percentage of reservation has to be worked out in relation to the number of posts which from the cadre-strength. The concept of 'vacancy' has no re

Dear members, > §kfb.kannur district unit celebrates worldwhite cane day on thu.17oct.2013 > Programme highlights: > §9.30am.Exhibition eyesfreeworld gv > Chaired by president district unit launched by venue principal. > Demonstrated by invited visually challenged persons. > 12pm.lunchbreak. > > 01pm.white cane rally to collectorate flaged by invited dignitary. > 02pm.planning for a visually challenged friendly district. Seminar organised > by kfb., district adninistration & jillapanjayth kannur. > > 2.10pm. Formalinaugoration of the project visually challenged > differently > abled friendly district Mr.rethankhelkar ias. District collector > kannur. > 2.30pm. Differently abled&local self governance > facilities&possibilities > keynote adress Mr.govindan kila. > 3.30pm. Visually challenged humanity societal perception&reality presented > by prof. C. Habeeb dept. Of English Faroke college, calicut. > 4.00pm eyesfreeworld&technological accessibilities Mr. K. Sathyasheelan > kfb.executive. Teacher associate govt. School for the blind vidyanagar > kasargod. > 4.30pm. Significance of un.crpd. & sightless people. sivadasan m. > Kfb.js.kannur. Tgt.ss. Kv.kannur. Sectional moderator will b mr.tn. > Muralidharan secretary kfb.kannur hst. Ss.gbhs. Aherukunnu. > 5.pm. Prize distribution ceremoney, winners of kfb.empowerment centre > annuversery celebration 2013. President district panjayth. > All the prize winners kfb. Members r cordially invited to the function. > team kfb.kannur empowers & enriches the visually challenged into an > inclusive global human fraternity. for more 9447781135. > > -- > You received this message because you are subscribed to the > Google Groups "KFB[Y]" group. > To post to this group, send email to > kfbyouth@googlegroups.com > To subscribe this group, send email to, > kfbyouth+subscribe@googlegroups.com. > To unsubscribe from this group and stop receiving emails from it, send > an > email to > kfbyouth+unsubscribe@googlegroups.com > Visit this group at > http://groups.google.com/group/kfbyouth?hl=en&hl=en-GB > For more options, visit > http://groups.google.com/groups/opt_out?hl=en&hl=en-GB > > Disclaimer: > 1. Contents of the mails, factual, or otherwise, reflect the thinking > of the > person sending the mail and KFB youth forum in no way relates itself to its > veracity; > 2. 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We the executive committee is so happy to inform you all that > kfb.kannur darshana centre for empowerment&rehabilitation of the > visually challenged differently abled esi. hospital road thottada, > celebrated its 24th annuversary today, on gandhijayanthi&international > day forpeace&non-violence Wed.2nd oct.2013 from9am,-5pm. with the > spirit of harmony&enthusiasm. the organisational flag was hoisted by > mr.c.velayudhan (president kfb.kannur)@09.30am. the the arts&sports > festival&the annuversary convention was inaugorated by > MR.ap.Abdullakkutty MLA. kannur@10.30am. the meeting was presided over > by mr.Raveendran (president edakkad grampanjayth) Mr. madhavan (member > Kannur District Panjayath) MR. Krishnan (chairman empowerment standing > committee, panjayth) & col. Radhakrishnan,facilitated the gathering. > the Annuversary messages were conveyed by Mr.ck.Abubacker (president > kfbkerala state) Mr. kj.vargees Ernakulam (vice-president Kfb) Mr. > c.velayudhan (district president Mr. kp. ramanathan unit vice > president) & prof. c. habeeb Dept. of English Faroke College. > Kfb.kannur district unit secretary Mr. tn Muralidharan welcomed the > gathering & Shivadasan M. join Secretary Expressed the vote of thanks. > It is followed by the luminary show&talent exposure by the gathered > contestants in different events like film_songs,recitation Malayalam, > Elocution Malayalam, folksong, & mappilappatu. Programmes were > anchored&Judged by Mr. tn Muralidharan, Mr. C. Habeeb Shivadasan M. & > Mr. kj.vargees. the Sports events in selected track & field items > like short-put, discuss javlin throw, tug of war & musical chair > were simultaneously performed under the direction of police > brotherens&sisters armed reserved battalion kannur. the Soccer players > of international football tournament for the visually challenged, held > in Thai-land, Renjith MS. & Naufal T. were gifted by the > organisational token of love&grattitude, by the chief guest of the > day, About 150 members were participated in the event. Reejesh pv. > kalesh kanai, abdulrahman kp. anuraj c. Renjith Ms. Naufal t. sanoj > k, prejul ak. Pradeep v, manikantan p. bebijoseph, Shamnesh kp. > Sudheesh k. sanila, sunithakumari, salamath ap, vipina Ae. & others > emerged as winners in different events the prize distribution ceremony > will b held on a later notified day & venue on or before 20th > oct.2013. Audio copy of the programmes will b available by 31st > Oct.2013. > Kerala federation of the blind----empowers&enriches the differently > abled visually challenged humanity into an inclusive > global-fraternity. kfb,kannur. > > -- > You received this message because you are subscribed to the > Google Groups "KFB[Y]" group. > To post to this group, send email to > kfbyouth@googlegroups.com > To subscribe this group, send email to, > kfbyouth+subscribe@googlegroups.com. > To unsubscribe from this group and stop receiving emails from it, send an > email to > kfbyouth+unsubscribe@googlegroups.com > Visit this group at > http://groups.google.com/group/kfbyouth?hl=en&hl=en-GB > For more options, visit > http://groups.google.com/groups/opt_out?hl=en&hl=en-GB > > Disclaimer: > 1. Contents of the mails, factual, or otherwise, reflect the thinking of the > person sending the mail and KFB youth forum in no way relates itself to its > veracity; > 2. KFB youth forum cannot be held liable for any commission/omission based > on the mails sent through this mailing list.

2012 april to 2013 march 31 വരെയുള്ള kfb കണ്ണൂര്‍ജില്ലാ യൂണിറ്റിന്റെ പ്റവര്‍ത്തന റിപ്പോര്‍ട്ട്. അംഗസംഖ്യ; kfb കണ്ണൂര്‍ജില്ലാ യൂണിറ്റിന്റെ അംഗസംഖ്യ 346 ആയി ഉയര്‍ന്നു. പുതുതായി ചേര്‍ന്ന അംഗങ്ങള്‍ക്ക് ബസ്സ്പാസ്സ്, പെന്‍ഷന്‍, ഐഡന്ററ്റി കാര്‍ഡ് തുടങ്ങിയ ആനുകൂല്ല്യങ്ങ്ഭള്‍ വാങ്ങിച്ചു കൊടുക്കുവാന്‍ സാധിച്ചു. മീറ്റിങ്ങുകള്‍; റിപ്പോര്‍ട്ട് വര്‍ഷത്തില്‍ 13;5 ;2012;; 5;8;2012, 30;9;2012 തുടങ്ങിയ ദിവസങ്ങളില്‍ kfb കുഴിച്ചാലിലുള്ള ഓഫീസില്‍വച്ച് നിര്‍വാഹകസമിതി യോഗങ്ങ്ള ചേര്‍ന്നു. ഓരോ മീറ്റിങ്ങുകളില്‍വീതം ജിനീഷുംമുഹമ്മദ് ഇക്ക്ബാലും പങ്കെടുത്തിട്ടില്ല. ഒക്ടോബര്‍ 2 ആംതീയതി ജില്ലാജനറല്‍ബോഡീ യോഗം തോട്ടടയില്‍വച്ച് നടട്ടി. ആകെ 84 അംഗങ്ങള്‍ പങ്കെടുത്തു. ഡിസംബര്‍ 29,30, തീയ്യതികളില്‍ സംസ്ഥാന സമ്മെളനവും വിവിധ പരിപാടികളോടെ ; ഉത്ഘാടന സമ്മേളനം,മെഡിക്കല്‍ ക്യാമ്പ്, സര്‍ഗ്ഗസംവാദം, ക്റിക്കറ്റ ടൂര്‍ണ്ണമെന്റ് റാലി,സാംസ്കാരിക സമ്മേളനം,സെമിനാര്‍, തുടങ്ങിയവയും ജനറല്‍ബോഡീയോഗവും നടത്തി. സാമ്പത്തിക സഹായം; റിപ്പോര്‍ട്ട് വര്‍ഷത്തില്‍ kp. ലഷ്മണന്‍, vc. മുഹമ്മദാലി, n. ബാബു, tv, തമ്പാന്‍, p.p ലക്ഷ്മണന്‍, c.c. മുഹമ്മദ്ദ്, സക്കറിയ k.k. k. കാര്‍ത്ത്യായനി, എന്നിവര്‍ക്ക് മക്കളുടെ വിദ്യാഭ്യാസത്തിന് 150 രൂപാ വീതം സഹായവും c.c, മുഹമ്മദ്ദ്, k. സുധാകരന്‍, cv. ഉഷ, c.p. സുരേ,ന്ദ്റന്‍ ശ്റീജ c.k. എന്നിവര്‍ക്ക് സ സ്വയം തൊഴില്‍ കണ്ടെത്താന്‍ 10000 രൂപാ വീതം നല്‍കി. k.k. സക്കറിയ,10000, e.k. മുഹമ്മദ്ദാലി, k.v. കൃഷ്ണന്‍ എന്നിവര്‍ക്ക് 5000 രൂപാ വീതം നല്‍കി. സ്വാതന്ത്റ്ദിനാഘോഷം ;: ഈ വര്‍ഷത്തെ സ്വാതന്‍ത്ര്യദിനാഘോഷം ചെറുകുന്നു ബോയിസ്സ് ഹൈസ്കൂളില്‍വച്ച് സോഷ്യല്‍സയന്‍സ്സ് ക്ളബ്ബിന്റെയും കോംട്രസ്്റ്റ് കണ്ണാശുപത്രി തലശ്ശേരിയുടെയും സംയുക്താഭിമുഖ്യത്തില്‍ നടത്തുവാന്‍ സാധിച്ചു. ആഘോഷപരിപാടി കണ്ണപുരം ഗ്രാമപഞ്ചായത്ത് പ്രസിഡണ്ട് ശ്രീമതി m ശ്യാമള ഉത്ഘാടനം ചെയ്തു. ചടങ്ങില്‍ വൈസ് പ്രസിഡന്റ് ശ്രീ കേ ശ്രീധരന്‍ അധ്യക്ഷതവഹിച്ചു. ചടങ്ങില്‍ ചെറുകുന്നു ഹയര്‍സെക്കന്ററി പ്രിന്‍സിപ്പാള്‍ ശ്രീ കെ. വീ. സുരേന്ദ്രന്‍ മാസ്റ്റര്‍, കെ എഫ്. ബീ. കണ്ണൂര്‍ജില്ലാ പ്രസിഡന്റ് ശ്രീ സീ. വേലായുധന്‍, വൈസ് പ്രസിഡന്റ് ശ്രീ കെ. പി. രാമനാഥന്‍, ഡോ.ശ്രീനി എന്നിവര്‍ സംസാരിച്ചു. ചടങ്ങില്‍ ബോയിസ്സ്ഹൈസ്കൂള്‍ പ്രധാന അധ്യാപിക ശ്രീമതി കെ പി. പ്രസന്ന ടീച്ചര്‍ സ്വാഗതവും സോഷ്യല്‍സയന്‍സ്സ് ക്ളബ്ബ് കണ്‍വീനറും കെ. എഫ്. ബി. കണ്ണൂര്‍ജില്ലാ സെക്ക്റട്ടറിയുമായ മുരളീധരന്‍ ടി. എന്‍. നന്ദിയും പറഞ്ഞു.. ക്യാമ്പില്‍വച്ച് 104 പേരെ കണ്ണ്പരിശോധിക്കുകയും 17 പേര്‍ക്ക് കണ്ണട നല്‍കുകയും 15 പേരെ കണ്ണോപ്പറേഷന് വിധേയമാക്കി.സ്കൂള്‍ കുട്ടികള്‍ക്കായുള്ള ക്വിസ്സ് മത്സരം കെ. എഫ്. ബി. ജോയിന്‍ സെക്ക്റട്ടറി എം.ശിവദാസനും, ടീ എന്‍. മുരളീധരനും നേത്രത്വം നല്‍കി. ഓണാഘോഷവും ഓണക്വിറ്റ് വിതരണവും. ഈ വര്‍ഷത്തെ ഓണാഘോ ഷവും ഓണക്വിറ്റ് വിതരണവും തളിപ്പറമ്പ് മുന്‍സിപ്പല്‍ ചെയര്‍പേഴ്സണ്‍ റംലാപക്കര്‍ കുഴിച്ചാലിലുള്ള കെ. എഫ്. ബി. ഓഫീസില്‍വച്ച് ആഗസ്റ്റ് 25ാംതീയതി വിതരണം ചെയ്തു. രണ്ട് വര്‍ഷമായി ജനറല്‍ബോഡിയില്‍ പങ്കെടുക്കുന്നവര്‍ക്കാണ് ക്വിറ്റ് നല്‍കുന്നത് അതുകൊണ്ട്തന്നെ ജനറല്‍ബോഡിയുടെ പ്രാതിനിധ്യം കൂട്ടാന്‍ സാധിച്ചിട്ടുണ്ട്. ഓണക്വിറ്റും ഓണസമ്പ്യയും പൂക്കളം തീര്‍ ത്തതും വേറിട്ടനുഭവമായെന്ന് ചേയര്‍പേഴ്ഴസന്‍ അറിയിച്ചു. സ്റ്റാന്റിങ്ങ് കമ്മറ്റി ചെയര്‍മാന്‍മാരായ വനജ,സീത എന്നിവരും പങ്കെടുത്തു. സപ്തമ്പര്‍ 11 ന് സ്താപക ദിനം ഈ വര്‍ഷത്തെ സ്താപകദിനം ലളിതമായി ആഘോഷിക്കുകയും രണ്ടു സെന്ററുകളിലും പതാക ഉയര്‍ത്തികൊണ്ട് ആചരിച്ചു. കുഴിച്ചാലില്‍ കെ. പി. രാമനാഥനും, തോട്ടടയില്‍ ടീ. എന്‍. ഗോപാലകൃഷ്ണനും പതാകയുയര്‍ത്തി. ഗുജറാത്തി മലയാളി ഫറ്റന്‍സ്ഗ്‍രൂപ്പിന്‍രെ സഹായത്തോട എ അയ്യോസീദിസ്സ്കിഡ്സ് എന്നപരിപാടിയിലൂടെ ജില്ലയിലെ കാഴ്ചയില്ലാത്ത കുട്ടിക്‍ളക്ക് കാഴ്ച നല്‍കുന്ന പരിപാടി ആരംഭിച്ചു. ജില്ലാകലക്ടര്‍ ശ്‍രീ രത്തന്‍കേല്‍ക്കര്‍ എം. എഫ്.ജീ.ചീഫ് സുനീഷ്നമ്പ്യാര്‍ ടീ. എന്‍. മുരളീധരന്‍, കെ. പി. രാമനാഥന്‍ എന്നിവര്‍ പങ്കെടുത്ത പത്റസമ്മെളനവും നടത്തി . വിപുലമായ പ്‍രചരണത്തിനു തുടക്കം കുറിച്ചു. മൂന്നു ബാച്ചുകളിലായി 36 പേരെ കോയമ്പത്തൂര്‍ ഐസെന്ററില്‍ വിദഗ്ദ ചികത്സക്ക് വിദേയമാക്കുവാന്‍ സാധിച്ചു. ഒരു പെണ്‍കുട്ടിക്ക് കണ്ണുമാറ്റി വച്ചു കൊടുക്കുവാന്‍ സാധിച്ചതിലും രണ്ട് പെണ്‍കുട്ടികള്‍ക്ക് കാഴ്ച പൂതന്ത്ര്യ്‍ണമായും തിരിച്ചു കിട്ടിയതിനാലും നമുക്കും ആഹ്ളാദിക്കാം. ഒക്ടോബര്‍ 2 വാര്‍ഷികാഘോഷം. ഈ വര്‍ഷത്തെ വാര്‍ഷീകാഘോഷം ജില്ലാകണ്‍വെന്‍ഷന്‍ നടത്തികൊണ്ടാണ ഘോഷിച്ചത്. ജില്ലാ പഞ്ചായത്ത് ക്ഷേമകാര്യ സ്റ്റാന്റിങ്ങ് കമ്മറ്റി ചേര്‍പേഴ്സനണ്‍ ശ്രീമതി ഒ രതിയുടെ അധ്യക്ഷതയില്‍ ജില്ലാപഞ്ചായത്ത് പ്രസിഡന്റ് പ്രൊഫസര്‍ പ കെ. എ സരള ഉത്ഘാടനം ചെയ്തു. കാഴ്ചയില്ലാത്തവര്‍ക്ക് കംപ്യൂട്ടര്‍ പഠനത്തിന് 15 ലക്ഷം, മറ്റു വികലാംഗര്‍ക്ക് 15 ലക്ഷവും ആകെ മുപ്പതു ലക്ഷത്തിന്റെ പദ്ദധതികള്‍ ജില്ലാ പഞ്ചായത്ത് പ്രസിഡന്റ് പ്രഖ്യാപിച്ചു. കെ. എഫ് ബി യുടെ പ്രവര്‍ത്തനങ്ങള്‍ മാതൃകാപരമാണെന്നുകൂടി അവര്‍ പറഞ്ഞു. ചടങ്ങില്‍ ടീ. എന്‍ മുരളീധരന്‍, സീ വേലായുധന്‍, സംസ്ഥാന വൈസ് പ്രസിഡന്റ് പീ ഉണ്ണികൃഷ്ണന്‍ എം ശിവദാസന്‍, എന്നിവര്‍ സംസാരിച്ചു. ചടങ്ങില്‍ കെപീ. രാമനാഥന്‍ സ്വാഗതവും മുഹമ്മദിഗ്ബാല്‍ നന്ദിയും പറഞ്ഞു. നേരത്തെ സമ്മേളനത്തിന്റെ ഭാഗമായി പ്രസിഡന്റ് വേലായുധന്‍ പതാകയുയര്‍ത്തി ജില്ലാ സമ്മേളനം അടുക്കും ചിട്ടയോടും കൂടി നടത്താന്‍ സാധിച്ചു. വികലാംഗദിനം. ഈ വര്‍ഷത്തെ വികലാംഗദിനം കായിക മത്സരങ്ങളോടെയാണ് ആരംഭിച്ചത്. ഫെഡറേഷന്‍ അംഗങ്ങള്‍ക്ക് കായിക മത്സരങ്ങളില്‍ താത്പരര്യം കാണാത്ത്തതില്‍ നിരാശതോനി. ഫെഡറേഷനെ പ്രതിനിധീകരിച്ച് സെക്രട്ടറി മുരളീധരന്‍ വൈസ് പ്രസിഡന്റ് രാമനാഥ ന്‍ജോ യന്റ് സെക്രട്ടറി ശിവദാസന്‍ എന്നിവര്‍ സംബന്ധിച്ചു. ബ്രെയില്‍ പ്രദര്‍ശനം. സംസ്ഥാന സമ്മേളനം. വളരെ വിപുലമായ പരിപാടികളോടെ ആഘോഷിച്ചത്തിനാല്‍ ബ്രെയില്‍ദിനം കാര്യമായി ആഘോഷിച്ചിട്ടില്ല. ആയതിനാല്‍ പൊതുജന സമ്പര്ക്ക പരിപാടി എന്നനിലയില്‍ മൂന്ന് ദിവസത്തെ ബ്രെയില്‍ പ്രദര്‍ശനം എന്ജനീയറിങ്കോളെജിന്റെ എക്സ്പോ 2013 പരിപാടിയുടെ ഭാഗമായി ന്നുദിവസത്തെ ബ്രെയില്‍ പ്രദര്‍ശനം കണ്ണൂര്‍ എന്ജനീയറിങ് കോളെജില്‍വച്ച് നടത്തി. മുഹമ്മദിഗ്ബാല്‍, വേലായുധന്‍, ശിവദാസന്‍ എന്നിവര്‍ നേതൃത്ത്വം നല്‍കി. പി. എസ്സ്. സി. കോച്ചിങ്ങ് ക്യാമ്പ് . കാഴ്ചയില്ലാത്തവരെ സ്പെഷ്യല്‍ റിക്രൂട്ട്മെന്റിന്് സജ്ജമാക്കുക എന്ന ലക്ഷ്യത്തോടുകൂടി രണ്ടുദിവസത്തെ പി. എസ്. സി. കോച്ചിങ്ങ് ക്യാമ്പ് കണ്ണൂര്‍ കോളേജില്‍വച്ച് ഏപ്രില്‍ 12, 13 തീയ്യതികളില്‍ മാതൃഭൂമി സ്റ്റഡിസര്‍ക്കിളിന്റെ സഹായത്തോടെ നടത്തുകയുണ്ടായി.രാജേഷ് തില്ലങ്കേരി, ടീ. എന്‍ മുരളീധരന്‍, കെ. പി. രാമനാഥന്‍, എം ശിവദാസന്‍ എന്നിവര്‍ നേതൃത്വം നല്‍കി. വളരെ അധികം വാര്‍ത്താ പ്രാധാന്ന്യം ഈ ക്യാമ്പിന്നു ലഭിച്ചിട്ടുണ്ട. ഇതിന്റെ ആവേശം ഉ്ളകൊണ്ടു കൊണ്ട് അഞ്ചുദിവസത്തെ വിപുലമായ ഒരു കോച്ചിങ്ങ് ക്യാമ്പ് മെയ് 26 മുതല്‍ 30വരെ തോട്ടടയില്‍ വച്ച് നടത്തുകയുണ്ടായി. 36പേര്‍ ്കയാമ്പില്‍ പങ്കെടുത്തു.ാകെ ജില്ലയില്‍ സി.ധന്യ,. ഓമന,പി. എ. വര്‍ക്കി, വിപിന എ. ഇ. സജികുമാര്‍, മേഘ, അബ്ദുള്‍റഹ്മാന്‍. കെ. പി, മൈക്കിള്‍ജോഷി, ജോജോ, അജിത്ത് മാധവമംഗലം, അബൂബേക്കര്‍, ജലീ ക. പി. തുടങ്ങിയ ഞങ്ങളുടെ പ്രവര്‍ത്തകര്‍ക്ത് നീണ്ട നാലുവര്‍ഷത്തെ പോരാട്ടത്തിന്റെ ഭാക്കിപത്റമായാണ് ഗവണ്‍മെന്റ് ജോലി ലഭിച്ചത്. വിനോദയാത്ര ഈ വര്‍ഷത്തെ വിനോദയാത്രകുഴിച്ചാല്‍ സെന്ററിന്റെ പത്താം വാര്‍ഷികത്തോടനുബന്ധിച്ച് ജനുവരി26ന് സംഘടിപ്പിച്ചു. അതിരാവിലെ വയനാട്ടിലേക്കാണ് യാത്ര പോയത്. കുടുംബാംഗങ്ങളെ കൂടി പ്ങ്കെടുപ്പിച്ച ഈ യാത്ര ഒരു നല്ല അനുഭവമായി.ാകെ 36പേര്‍ വിനോദയാത്രയില്‍ പങ്കെടുത്തു. പഴശ്ശി രക്തസാക്ഷിമണ്ടപം, തോല്‍പട്ടി വനയാത്ര, കുറുവ ദ്വീപ്,2ാണാസുരസാഗര്‍ എന്നിവിടുങ്ങളിലെക്കാണ് വിനോദയാത്ര. ദര്‍ശന ചോക്കു നിര്‍മാണ യൂണിറ്റ്. കെ. എഫ്. ബി. യുടെ അഭിമാന പദ്ധതിയായ ദര്‍ശന ചോക്ക് യൂണിറ്റ് പുരോഗമനത്തിന്റെ പാതയിലാണ്. റിപ്പോര്‍ട്ട് വര്‍ഷത്തില്‍മോഹന്‍ദാസ് ജോലി മതിയാക്കിയ ഒഴിവില്‍ വൃന്തയെ സൂപ്പര്‍വൈസറായി നിയമിച്ചിട്ടുണ്ട്.റിപ്പോര്‍ട്ട് വര്‍ഷത്തില്‍ രേക്ഷ്മ ജോലി മതിയാക്കി. പുതുതായി ടീ. എന്‍ ഗോപാലകൃഷ്ണന്‍, വിമല, ജമീല, റംല, ദിനേശന്‍, എന്നിവരെ ജോലിക്കെടുത്തിട്ടുണ്ട്. ഇവര്‍ക്ക് താമസവും ഭക്ഷണവും നല്‍കി വര്‍ക്ക് സെന്റര്‍ അതിന്റെ പ്രവര്‍ത്തനംതുടരുന്നു. അടുത്ത വര്‍ഷത്തെക്കാവശ്യമായ ചോക്കുകള്‍ വിതരണത്തിന്നു സജ്ജീകരിച്ചിട്ടുണ്ട്. പ്രതീക്ഷ നോട്ടുബുക്ക് യൂണിറ്റ്. പ്രതീക്ഷ നോട്ടുബുക്കിന്റെ പ്രവര്‍ത്തനം പുരോഗമിക്കുന്നു. നോട്ടുബുക്കന്തനുള്ള ഓര്‍ഡര്‍ കുറവാണ്. ഐ. സി. ഡി. എസ്. ഉത്പന്നങ്ങ്ള സമയത്തിനു കൊടുക്കുവാന്‍ സാധിച്ചിട്ടുണ്ട്. ശാന്തി ജോലി മതിയാക്കി. കെട്ടിടത്തിന്റെ മുകള്‍ ഭാഗം എം. എല്‍. എ. ഫണ്ട് ഉപയോഗിച്ച് വികസിപ്പിക്കുവാന്‍ ശ്രമിച്ചുവരുന്നു. ടോക്കിങ്ബുക്ക് പ്രോജക്ട്. പ്രതീക്ഷ ഓഡിയോ വീക്കിലി നവീകരിച്ച് പുറത്തിറക്കാന്‍ സാധിച്ചു.പ്രോഫഷണല്‍ റീഡറ്‍മാരെ കൊണ്ട് വായിപ്പിച്ച് ഗുണനിലവാരം ഉറപ്പു വരുത്തുവാന്‍ സാധിച്ചു.വായിച്ച പുസ്തകങ്ങളുടെ കെറ്റ്ലോഗ് കെ. എഫ്. ഓ ആര്‍ജി എന്ന വെബ്ബസൈറ്റില്‍ പ്രസിധപ്പെടുത്തിയിട്ടുണ്ട്. ആകെ അറനൂറ് പുസ്തകങ്ങള്‍ സൂചികയില്‍ ചെര്‍ത്തിട്ടുണ്ട്. കാഴ്ചയില്ലാത്തവരുടെ വൈവാഹിക ജീവിതം പ്രോത്സാഹിപ്പ്പിക്കുന്നതിനുവേണ്ടി മാട്രിമോണിയല്‍ സംരംഭം ആരംഭിച്ചിട്ടുണ്ട്. 26പേര്‍ ഇതിനകം പേര്‍ രജിസ്റ്റര്‍ muralidharan.T.N KFB Kannur Dist Unit

Notice:7 December 2012:45th State Convension of Kerala Federation of the Blind will be held on 29th&30th Dec 2012 at College of Commerce and Co-operative bank hall near by old bus stand kannur respectively. Programmes 1.7.30 to 9.30:Registration 9.30 to 10:Flag hoisting 10.30 to 11:Inaugral session 11 to 1:Sarga samadham 1.30 to 3:Womens form general body 3 to 5:Seminar 5 to 6:Ralli 6 to 10:Cultural nights & ganamela(at towns squire kannur) 11 to ownwords:cricket exhibition match(Police pared ground) and Eye camp(College of commerce) 30 th programmes General bodi meeting,inaugration session of representative deligates All welwishers of KFB are requested to join this big eventure.

Notice September 20 2012 45th Annual District convention of KFB Kannur will be held on October 2nd Tuesdeay 2012 at KFB Conference Hall Thottada. All Kannur District Unit members are requested to attend the convention K.A Sarala chair person of Kannur District panchayeth has given their concent to inaguate the convention. Srimathi Rathi standing committee chaqir person of Kannur District Panchayeth also ready to preside over the function. C.K Aboobacker, C. Velayudhan. T.N Muralidharan, K.P. Ramanathan,

NOTICE 24/Auguest/2012 KFB kannur unit has "launched this programme "ayyyo*** please see this innocent kids " with the help of Sankar Nethralaya Coimbatore and Gujarath Friends Malayalee Association Thtough this programme iradication of blindness among the kids are expecting.. We arranged free assistance to Cornia transplantation, high operation ,hospital expenses,medicines,food and accomodations,transportation charges etc.. Needy peoples are advises to register their name with medical reccomentation report and bio-data.. For additional information please call 04972781135 , 9400580218 and sent email kfbknr@gmail.com Thaking you secretary Muralidharan. T.N

NOTICE23/8/2012 we are celebrating Onam with our blind brotherens on 25th auguest 2912, saterday at kuzhichal office. Ramla Pakker chair person oof Taliparamba Municipality has given their concent to innagurate this function at 1p.m. Onapookalam,Onasadya dispersing of Onamkit and punlic meeting will took place.

INDEPENDENCE DAY CELEBRATIONS Kerala Federation of the Blind and social science club of Cherukunnu Boys High school are celebrating Independence Day , by conducting an eye camb with the help of Comtrust Eye Care Hospital, Thalassery on 15 th auguest , wednesday at cherukunnu G.B.H.S. Chess and Quiz competition are also conducting.

An Executive Committee Meeting of KFB Kannur District Unit will be held on 5th Aug 2012,10 a.m at KFB work centre,kuzhichal Parassinikadav. All executive committee members are requested to attend the meeting. Agenda 1. Prayer 2. Welcome speach 3. Condolents motion 4.Presidential Address 5 Submitting last executive committee meeting minutes 6 Breathing of Secretary 7 Independence day celebration 8. Onam celebrations 9 Annual day celebraions 10 others By S ecretary Muralidharan. T.N

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Welcome
Kerala Federation of Blind aims to promote healthy and independent living for those who are visually challenged by providing them with timely and relevant resources. Our assistance is also available to their families as well. We aim to ensure the interests and rights of those who are visually impaired by providing them assistance in any area they demand. We provide assistance in all fields for increasing confidence and to develop courage among our members to face the world independently.
Vision & Mission
Kerala Federation of Blind aims to expand the possibilities of visually challenged people all over Kerala and esecially from Kannur District. It is necessary that visually impaired people are trained to become self employed and capable enough to make a living of their own.

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Activities

We provide training to our members in various areas like book binding, chair retaining, chalk making, book making and several other activities. We also provide mobility training along with counseling and other services. For achieving the same we have started to produce

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Achievements
Awards President’s National Award in 2000 Kerala State Governments Best Handicapped Employees Awards . We are publishing an audio weekly named Prateeksha and Souvenirs as well.



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